Posted on Leave a comment

‘Hemp surging as an environmental alternative to other fibers’


Lawrence Serbin, Hemp Traders

INTERVIEW: A 31-year veteran of the hemp industry, Lawrence Serbin is president of California-based Hemp Traders, which he founded in 1994. He started Cannagrove, a producer of engineered hemp “wood” particleboard in 2018 after having researched such material since 2005. Serbin is past national director of the Business Alliance for Commerce in Hemp and past president and director at the national Hemp Industries Association. He served as chair of the California Hemp Advisory Board for the California Department of Food and Agriculture from 2017–2020. He is currently working to bring decortication, processing, and spinning facilities online to support the U.S. hemp construction and textile sectors.

HempToday: You have a wide, wide assortment of hemp products at Hemp Traders. What kind of products are trending now?

Lawrence Serbin: We have always sold hemp textiles, but at this moment, there is definitely a surge in the interest to use hemp as an environmental alternative to other fibers in textiles.

HT: You’ve mentioned that Hemp Traders now imports yarns from China since the machines don’t exist in the U.S. Won’t yarn from China always be less expensive?

LS: Perhaps. China has lower production costs due to a lower standard of living, so there is going to be a cost-benefit to working with China. And it is fairly inexpensive and environmental to ship things to and from China by boat. But we do have an opportunity to grow hemp in the United States.

HT: How is your work going with respect to bringing farmers and processors online to support the development of a U.S. supply chain for textiles and building materials? How do you see the investment picture shaping up there?

LS: Very well. We are growing our first farm size test crop in California’s Central Valley. The information we are getting this year will allow us to grow on a commercial scale in 2022. We have also set up a fiber processing facility near to where the hemp is grown.

HT: What are the economics of the hemp particle board you developed at Cannagrove? Is it even fair to ask, at this point, for price comparison with conventional wood-chip particle board?

LS: The first boards we made were more expensive than regular particleboard mainly due to having to ship the raw materials around the country to the factory that could produce it. The shipping costs were half of the cost of making the board. But when the hemp is made at a facility that is near to where the hemp is grown, it becomes much less expensive. And now with the higher costs of regular wood particleboard, hemp is going to be a less expensive alternative.

HT: What’s happening with hemp building materials in general? Do you see any significant movement in that market?

LS: One main problem with the hemp building market has been a lack of raw materials. Mostly we have had to import them. As we begin to grow more hemp in the United States for fiber, there will be much more material available at a lower cost. This will be what kick starts the hemp building industry.

HT: How do you see the arc of production for such biocomposite products going forward the next five years?

LS: I think we will see 2021 and 2022 begin to establish the markets for hemp fiber products and grain. After that, there will be a huge increase in demand with farmers increasing acres devoted to fiber and grain.

HT: Some parts of California don’t seem very friendly to hemp. What’s up with that in your state?

LS: There are two things going on. Some areas of the state have a history of marijuana production. Those areas are concerned that high CBD hemp flower varieties might cross-pollinate with their crop and lower the value. In other areas where people have grown for CBD, a pungent odor of cannabis around harvest time has had people complain. Overall there is overregulation of the hemp industry, especially when it comes to fiber crops, which don’t even produce a flower.

HT: When you started in hemp three decades ago, did you think the industry would develop faster than it has?

LS: In the beginning in the early 1990’s I thought we would first see industrial hemp legalized, followed by medical cannabis and then recreational cannabis. I thought this would all happen by the end of the decade. In reality we first saw medical marijuana legalized, followed by recreational, and then industrial. And it took over 25 years.

HT: Thirty-one years is a long time in hemp. You must have one or two heroes.

LS: There are a few people I admire. Canada legalized industrial hemp in the late 1990’s and two companies emerged to fill the demand for hemp foods. Hemp Oil Canada founded by Shawn Crew and Manitoba Harvest founded by Mike Fata. Those are good examples of what a professional hemp company should look like.

Posted on Leave a comment

Extracting High-value Products from Hemp Waste



Hemp (Cannabis sativa) is cultivated for its fiber (bast fiber) and its edible seeds as well as some medicinal products. When bast fibers are separated from the hemp stem, what’s left is called hemp hurds. These woody residues are the least valuable part of the hemp stem and are treated as a by-product of fiber production, even though they represent the largest fraction of the hemp plant.

Extracting High-value Products from Hemp Waste

Hemp (Cannabis sativa) is cultivated for its fiber (bast fiber) and its edible seeds as well as some medicinal products [1]. When bast fibers are separated from the hemp stem, what’s left is called hemp hurds. These woody residues are the least valuable part of the hemp stem and are treated as a by-product of fiber production, even though they represent the largest fraction of the hemp plant. Hemp hurds can be used in a range of applications such as animal bedding, construction materials, and garden mulch [2], but they are still generally considered as waste.

Slow Pyrolysis
However, thermochemical processing of hemp hurds can produce some high-value products. One particular thermochemical process called slow pyrolysis can be used to convert hemp hurds into biochar, liquids (distillates), and gases [3]. These are produced in approximately equal amounts, although the process conditions can be adjusted to maximize the yield of a particular fraction.

Slow pyrolysis is usually used to convert biomass into biochar, a type of carbon-rich charcoal that is used as a soil improver or to store carbon. Liquid distillates are also produced, but they are considered a by-product and are often burned or dumped. However, these liquid distillates contain bioactive compounds and could be collected to generate additional income.

In this study, four types of industrial hemp hurds were thermally processed and converted into liquid distillates by slow pyrolysis at different temperatures [5]. The team investigated the chemical composition of the distillates to identify possible valuable molecules or molecule groups. They believe this is the first time that large samples (kilograms) have been studied in this way. Previous studies have focused on small, lab-scale samples (grams) [4].

The authors processed the hurds using slow pyrolysis at relatively low process temperatures from room temperature up to the maximum operating temperature of 350 ̊C. They collected raw distillates at three stages of the slow pyrolysis process (drying, torrefaction, and pyrolysis).

Detailed Analysis of Samples
Various analytical techniques were employed to study the samples. These included Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC–HRMS), and two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (2D GC-MS). For example, FTIR spectroscopy was used to obtain information regarding functional groups of all the hemp hurd distillate fractions. All spectra were measured using Bruker’s Alpha FTIR spectrometer equipped with attenuated total reflection diamond, a sensitive 2 × 2 mm diamond crystal surface, and sample compartment RT-DLaTGS.

The team identified and measured some potentially valuable molecules for the first time. The analyses showed remarkable differences in the concentration of compounds in different distillates. The relevant compounds came from three different hemp hurd samples, especially from torrefaction and pyrolysis phase distillates condensed below 100 ̊C.

Acetic acid was the main component of all samples. Other interesting compounds included guaiacol and syringol derivatives such as 2,6- Dimethoxyphenol, guaiacol (2-Methoxyphenol), vanillin, and eugenol.
Most of these compounds are expensive to make because they appear in low concentrations in distillates, which means they must be separated and purified (although several modern scalable techniques are available). Such compounds could be used as purified products for nutritional, pharmaceutical, and agricultural purposes. Vanillin and eugenol, for example, are used as ingredients by the functional food and pharmaceutical sectors.
The authors estimate that one ton of hurds (€200 at current prices) would produce about 300 kg biochar (worth around €400 at current prices). It would also produce about 40 kg of acetic acid, the main compound in the distillates, worth around €100 as a bulk product. One ton of hurds would generate around 1.3 kg of 1-hydroxybutan-2-one, the most expensive of the minor distillate compounds. In principle, this could be purified to higher than 95% purity and sold for €1300–6500. 1-hydroxybutan-2-one is often used as a flavor or fragrance agent.

Conclusion
This study provides useful baseline data for chemical profiling of wood distillates, especially hemp hurd distillates. It also shows clear potential to generate high-value products from hemp hurds by utilizing slow pyrolysis to generate biochar and distillates that contain potentially useful ingredients. The whole process can be optimized to generate the most valuable products, varying factors such as temperature, heating rates, and residence times. Further processing of distillates would involve separation and purification procedures such as short path distillation and centrifugal partition chromatography. The researchers recommend further research to evaluate the economic potential in detail, for example, by considering the purification process costs and the market value and volume of high-value chemicals, and the business potential in general.
Bruker offers the broadest range of analytical techniques used in the emerging global Cannabis Industry already today. The portfolio includes benchtop and floor-standing NMR, optical methods like FTIR and Raman spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. This makes Bruker the only end-to-end solution provider with applications tagging into every stage of the Cannabis value chain. We enable our customers to generate new revenue streams and reduce waste.

Bruker does not support, encourage, or intend that its products or services be used in connection with any illegal use, cultivation or trade of cannabis or cannabis products.  Bruker products are intended to be used only in compliance with all applicable laws in a manner that promotes public safety and in connection with any lawful and approved scientific or medical research activities.

References
[1] Cherney, J.H. et al, (2016). Industrial Hemp in North America: Production, Politics and Potential. Agronomy.
https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4395/6/4/58
[2] Carus, M. and Sarmento, L., (2016) The European Hemp Industry: Cultivation, processing and applications for fibres, shivs, seeds and flowers. EIHA.
https://eiha.org/media/2016/05/16-05-17-European-Hemp-Industry-2013.pdf
[3] Amini, E. et al, (2019) Characterization of pyrolysis products from slow pyrolysis of live and dead vegetation native to the southern United States. Fuel.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0016236118314832
[4] Branca, C. et al, (2017) Experimental analysis about the exploitation of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) in pyrolysis. Fuel Processing Technology.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378382016310372
[5] Salami, A. et al, (2020) Complementary chemical characterization of distillates obtained from industrial hemp hurds by thermal processing. Industrial Crops and Products.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0926669020306774?via%3Dihub

Posted on Leave a comment

Down To The Last Stem: Making The Most Of Cannabis Plant Waste

Another successful harvest is complete. Your cannabis flower has been cured and trimmed, and the trim has been made into extract or edible — or better yet, both. There’s just one thing left to do: Clean up the plant mess. You’ve got a load of fan leaves, cannabis stalks, root balls and soil that need to be dealt with. While it’s tempting to simply break them down and throw them into large black garbage bags, you’d rather be more environmentally friendly, right? But how?

Going green is a practice most cannabis growers want to embrace with their gardens. However, despite the eco-friendly nature of the cannabis industry, growers in legal states are struggling to make the most of their cannabis plant waste, with much of it ending up in a landfill.

So, what can cannabis growers do? Obviously, the answer to this question depends on the type of grow they’re operating — small-scale medical grows won’t have the same options as large recreational grows. In either case, cannabis plant waste shouldn’t even be referred to as waste; there’s just so much that can be done with it.

Six Options For Reusing And Recycling Your Plant Waste

1. Compost

There are two options when it comes to composting cannabis plant waste. The first is on-site composting. If your grow is on a large enough property, you can create your own organic fertilizer there, but it will have to be far larger an area than a typical at-home composter in order to accommodate cannabis stalks, root balls and fan leaves. If you’re going to start your own compost, you can’t just throw your cannabis waste in a big pile outside and hope for the best; you’ll need a compost area with good drainage, the ability to completely cover it, proper circulation and diverse contents. In addition to the cannabis plant waste, you’ll need to add things like kitchen scraps for moisture. If your grow operation is located outside, an added bonus to making your own compost is that you can use it on your plants. Save the earth, save a few bucks.

If you can’t start your own compost pile, another option is to use an industrial compost facility. Disposing of your cannabis plant waste via an industrial compost facility is undoubtedly the most convenient option, as most facilities provide the bins for the waste and even pick it up. You can then buy compost from these facilities for a great price. The issue with industrial compost facilities is that many of them receive federal funding and thus have to follow federal regulations, which means they can’t take cannabis waste. Some industrial composting facilities are privately owned, however, and will gladly take your cannabis plant waste. Call around to your local composters to find out whether or not they’ll take your cannabis plant waste.

2. Edibles

Fan leaves and cannabis roots aren’t waste at all. In fact, they have medicinal value and should be used. Fan leaves are well known to be good for making teas and juicing. The fan leaves are good for you and are full of all kinds of nutrients.

Cannabis roots have a long history of medicinal use. According to a study published in Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, the journey of cannabis roots as a medicine began in Ancient Rome when Roman author Pliny the Elder claimed in his encyclopedia Natural Histories that cannabis root could treat stiff joints and a variety of other inflammation-related conditions.

“The current available data on the pharmacology of cannabis root components provide significant support to the historical and ethnobotanical claims of efficacy,” the study concludes.

The study also provides THC content for all parts of the plant. The roots contain no significant THC, the stems and fan leaves tested at less than 1 percent THC, and the flower being tested came in at 15.2 percent. So, while the roots may not contain significant THC, other chemical compounds in the plant matter may provide relief for a variety of inflammation-related ills.

Since fan leaves don’t contain much THC or CBD, they’re most useful for juicing and teas. Roots don’t contain any THC, so their medicinal properties can be accessed by making a simple cannabis root tea. You won’t want to juice cannabis roots, as the flavor and consistency aren’t appealing. If this is the route you choose to take, there’s plenty of info and recipes out there to help you get the most out of these healthful ingredients.

3. Topicals

Cannabis stems and fan leaves contain trace amounts of THC — .3 percent and .8 percent, respectively, according to the aforementioned study. This makes them a viable source for medicinal use in the form of topicals. Since most cannabis growers are left with vast amounts of fan leaves, extracting medicine from them by making an oil is an economic and ecologically friendly method.

Once you’ve made your cannabis oil (stick to coconut or olive oil for topicals; rubbing butter on your skin is problematic), there are many recipes online that use other herbs to complement cannabis, both with their fragrance and medicinal qualities. Herbs such as rosemary, lavender, sage and thyme all offer medicinal and aromatic benefits that will make your topicals extra effective.

4. Mulch

One simple, effective and inexpensive way to repurpose cannabis stalks is to turn them into mulch. Put the cannabis stalks through a wood chipper and you’ll have mulch to put on your garden beds, or wherever else you may need mulch. It provides a great cover for the winter and will eventually break down and benefit the soil.

5. Fiber

Long before cannabis and hemp prohibition were even considered, our forefathers were using hemp stalks to create textiles including ropes, clothing and even sails for their ships. Hemp and marijuana are different plants, but their hardy stalks can be used in many of the same ways, one of which being fiber. Creating rope, in particular, is fairly simple and can be done with rough, inexpensive and easy-to-acquire farm equipment. The wonderful world of YouTube has several videos on how to process hemp stalks on a small scale. Cannabis stalks can be processed in the same way.

Check out the below YouTube clip courtesy of Mainely Acres about processing hemp on a small scale:https://www.youtube.com/embed/cqCpFXR1OdI?start=461&feature=oembed

If you’re looking to process cannabis stalks on a larger scale, you’ll want to partner with someone capable of processing stalks into a fiber. It may take some digging to find the right partner, but sustainable fiber producers are out there and eager to work with new materials, if regulations allow. If you’re in Colorado, you’re in luck. State laws were just updated to allow, and actually encourage, cannabis growers to turn their plant waste into industrial fibers.

Cannabis Recycling

Hempcrete is made from the center core of the cannabis stalk, also known as the hurds.

6. Hempcrete

An underappreciated way to utilize hemp and cannabis stalks is to turn them into hempcrete. Unlike fiber, which is made from the outer layer of a cannabis stalk, hempcrete is made from the center core of the cannabis stalk, also known as the hurds. To turn those hurds into hempcrete, chop them up and mix them with a lime-based binder and water. A common ratio is:

  • Four parts hurds
  • One part lime binder
  • One part water

Different ratios produce different strengths, depending on the application, so it’s good to play around with ratios until you find the right one for your project. The hempcrete mixture will need to be placed in a metal or wood structural frame to dry. The drying takes at least a month, so it will need to be done during a dry season.

So, before you bag up those remnants of your last grow for the landfill, consider one of these options to help make the most out of your cannabis plant waste. Not only will you possibly be able to profit, but you’ll also be helping to save the planet.

Posted on Leave a comment

Pot Porsches and Hempcrete are here

From stalled legislation to falling stock prices, cannabis didn’t have the greatest year. But investors are finding something to be optimistic about heading into 2022: industrial hemp.

Demand is poised to rise for hemp — the staid sister to the mood-altering forms of cannabis — as it’s increasingly adopted for a wide range of uses, including concrete blocks, clothing and even car parts. The shift is driven by environmental incentives such as carbon caps and single-use plastic bans, which are making some natural materials preferable to those made from petrochemicals.

“Industrial hemp is the biggest opportunity in the cannabis sector as a whole,” said Mina Mishrikey, a partner at Merida Capital Partners. His firm has invested around 90% to 95% of its $500 million in assets under management in cannabis businesses centered around THC, the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana, but aims to make more investments in industrial hemp, Mishrikey told me.

Hemp could use the boost after the market struggled to capitalize on the hype following the 2018 farm bill, which legalized hemp and led to over-planting when not enough companies were ready to create end products. In 2021, the number of acres of hemp planted fell to 33,844 from 70,530 a year earlier and 465,787 in 2019 according to New Frontier Data.

Adding to the challenges, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently refused to regulate one of hemp's best-known products — CBD, or cannabidiol — as a dietary ingredient, casting a specter of uncertainty over the otherwise booming market for creams, tinctures and gummies.

As a material, hemp remains more expensive than alternatives that come from petrochemicals. But India, Canada, Germany and South Africa are among the countries cracking down on plastics in 2022, making alternatives more economical. Meanwhile, pressure to shift from oil and gas to renewable industries is increasing and carbon credits are becoming more valuable — and that’s an area where hemp has an advantage.

Mishrikey sees the plant’s ability to capture carbon while it’s growing, and its ability to use less water than cotton, as key factors that help it disrupt a range of products. Just one category of industrial hemp alone — precast concrete — is worth around $20 billion, roughly the same size as the current U.S. legal marijuana market, he pointed out.

His fund’s investments include Canadian Rockies Hemp Corp., based in Bruderheim, Alberta, which processes hemp for use in textiles, pulp and paper, animal bedding, rope, composites and automobile components, according to its website. Another is Bast Fibre Technologies Inc., based in Victoria, British Columbia, which has a processing technology to make nonwoven fabrics with natural fibers including hemp. That could be helpful for the booming market in wipes, which are ripe for disruption due to the sewer-clogging gobs known as fatbergs.

Hemp could play a role in many categories: plastics, textiles, papers, building materials, protein for humans and animals, and concrete of all forms. Some of the more innovative applications include hempcrete, where hemp fibers are infused in the mortar, and a Porsche car with some components made of hemp. Some see hemp as a viable alternative to almost anything made from petrochemicals, due to the properties of its cellulose fibers.

The U.S. will have some catching up to do: China is the leading grower of hemp and is  tiptoeing into the CBD market, starting with Hong Kong. The plants also require different agricultural and processing techniques compared to other forms of cannabis, meaning the supply chain will have to be built out from scratch. Processing the plant's tough fibers, called decortication, is an arduous practice that takes heavy machinery and has created something of a bottleneck.

That bottleneck is about to get some help from a $500 million impact fund by rePlant Hemp Advisors, launched in early November by Geoff Whaling, co-founder of Collective Growth Corp., and others including Michael Woods, former chief executive officer and chief operating officer of Rothschild & Co. Asset Management U.S. The fund plans to help develop U.S. infrastructure to process hemp and improve the supply chain, focusing on hemp for food and fiber.

“I probably have a dozen companies call me a week” about using hemp in their products, Whaling said, citing brands like Chobani, Wrangler jeans and Tesla.

“They all want to know where they can get 100 tons of fiber a year, and the answer, at this point, is nowhere,” he said. “No major manufacturer will sign unless there's a two-year supply in a warehouse.”

But slowly, that’s changing.

“We're seeing more countries advancing and mandating use of sustainable fibers, more auto companies adopting natural fiber solutions,” Whaling said. “It really is an industrial hemp revolution.”

Number of the week 

16.6% The compound annual growth rate of the legal U.S. cannabis market from 2020 to 2025, as estimated by New Frontier Data in their 2021 Year in Review report.

Posted on Leave a comment

Wat Te Doen Met De Mannelijke Cannabis Plant?

5 min 19  0Mei 24, 2018 Last updated : Juli 30, 2020GrowingSeedshop

De mannelijke marihuana planten worden vaak afgekraakt, maar hebben hun eigen speciale waarde. Overweeg de volgende keer, voordat je je mannetjes weggooit als je hun geslacht herkent, hun nut en haal alles uit je mannetjes.

WAT TE DOEN MET MANNELIJKE CANNABIS PLANTEN

De mannelijke cannabis plant wordt vaak belachelijk gemaakt en is vaak onbegrepen. De meeste kwekers gooien mannelijke planten weg zodra ze ze herkennen, wat niet heel gek is in een sinsemilla tuin. Maar denk, voordat je deze mannetjes uitroeit zodra ze hun ballen tonen, aan de volgende dingen, die je zomaar eens aangenaam zouden kunnen verrassen.

Hoewel ze meestal niet zo harsrijk zijn als sinsemilla vrouwtjes, bevatten volledig ontwikkelde mannetjes alsnog een verleidelijk cannabinoïden spectrum. En je krijgt veel, we herhalen, veel pollen van een mannelijke plant als je hem laat volgroeien. Mannelijke planten groeien ook sneller, worden hoger, en rijpen sneller dan vrouwtjes.

Er zit vaak een zonzijde aan wat kan worden beschouwd als een slechte situatie. Als je de pech hebt dat ieder zaadje van je aangeschafte reguliere zaden mannelijk blijkt te zijn, raak dan niet in paniek en gooi ze niet weg. Verzorg ze als een sinsemilla soort en laat je verrassen door de hoeveelheid pollen die je krijgt. En ja, van pollen kun je stoned worden!

CANNABIS SEKSUALITEIT

Cannabis is een tweehuizige soort, wat inhoudt dat, in tegenstelling tot 80% van de plantensoorten op aarde, marihuana uit aparte mannelijke en vrouwelijke planten bestaat. Hermafrodieten komen echter soms ook voor, vooral als de planten blootgesteld worden aan externe stress of wanneer ze worden gekweekt in een slechte bodem. Hermafroditisme zorgt er vaak voor dat een plant kan overleven in barre omstandigheden. Consistente zelfbestuiving kan echter leiden tot verslechtering van de algehele gezondheid van verschillende generaties.

Bepaalde genen die door ouderplanten worden doorgegeven, leiden voortdurend tot aanpassingen van het nageslacht, waarbij het de beste eigenschappen van beide ouders behoudt. Iedere generatie is steeds beter in staat om te overleven. Dit leidt uiteindelijk tot landsoorten die goed gedijen in specifieke regio’s. Hoewel het niet in theorie is bewezen, houden sommige soorten die voortkomen uit binnen-soorten er meer van om binnen gekweekt te worden. Het klinkt misschien gek, maar sommige gekruiste soorten groeien buiten niet beter, zelfs niet in een vriendelijk klimaat.

Mannelijke planten produceren een overvloed aan fraaie pollen die door de wind worden verspreid. De stuifmeelzakken bestaan uit vijf geel-witte bladstelen, die de helmknoppen beschermen, waarin de pollenkorrels zich bevinden. Eenmaal volgroeid, springt het omhulsel open en geven de gezwollen helmknoppen hun stuifmeel af. Vrouwelijke planten hebben fijne stampers die zijn bedekt met kleverige hars, waarmee ze de tere pollen kunnen opvangen. Eenmaal bestoven, worden de stampers droog, sterven ze af en begint er zich een zaadje te vormen. Na een kleine zes weken zijn de zaden volgroeid en splijten ze de kelk open.

HASHISH & CONCENTRATEN

Hashish & Concentraten

Normaal gesproken produceert een cannabis plant meer dan 50% aan mannetjes in een gewas, maar sommige zeer productieve soorten kunnen maar liefst 75-90% aan mannetjes voortbrengen. De natuur moet wel een reden hebben voor deze behoefte aan mannetjes, gezien iedere plant genoeg pollen aanmaakt om velden vol met vrouwtjes te bestuiven. Laten we deze pollen eens bekijken.

Net als bij vrouwelijke planten, bevatten de voortplantingsorganen van mannelijke planten meer cannabinoïden dan de rest van de plant. Klierharen omvatten de bloemkelk, bloemkroon en de meeldraden. Grote sessiele klieren lopen langs de zijden van de helmknop, tussen de vele stuifmeelkorrels in. Als het omhulsel van de knop breekt, komt de hars met het stuifmeel vrij. Net als bij vrouwelijke bloemen, speelt de soort een belangrijke rol bij de potentie van de toppen. Pollen die zijn gedroogd en geperst in een stuifmeel-per of net als ieder andere harsextractie zijn klaargemaakt, veroorzaken een aangename buzz bij iedereen. Mannetjes hebben geen gebrek aan cannabinoïden.Gerelateerd verhaalDe 5 Beste Manieren Om Hasj Te Maken 

Het interessante is dat tijdens de vegetatieve groeifase, de mannetjes hogere concentraties THC laten zien in de bladeren dan vrouwtjes; alleen in de volwassen stadia ontwikkelen vrouwtjes een hoger THC-gehalte. Het vermogen om sinsemilla te creëren is absoluut weggelegd voor vrouwtjes, die daardoor de hoeksteen van de harsproductie zijn geworden. Mannetjes hebben een beperkte levensduur en er zijn helaas geen technieken bekend om de harsproductie te verhogen, en de bestuiving bij mannetjes te vertragen. Ze zijn nu eenmaal wat ze zijn.

KWEKEN & EVOLUTIE

Kweken & Evolutie

Oorspronkelijke zijn mannetjes nodig voor kweken en voor de voortzetting van het mengen van bepaalde eigenschappen. Kweken wordt gebruikt om nieuwe soorten te ontwikkelen of om de puurheid van bestaande populaire soorten te behouden. Kweken kan ook worden ingezet om gewenste soorten te laten wennen aan specifieke regio’s als ze buiten worden gekweekt. Lijnteelt, terugkweek en andere homozygote trucs kunnen worden gehanteerd om de evolutie te laten versnellen, waardoor soms nieuwe en interessante eigenschappen de kop opsteken, en waarbij soms vreemde mutanten ontstaan die af en toe niet eens op cannabis lijken.

Je hoeft niet in paniek te raken als er mannetjes aanwezig zijn in je tuin. Als je kweek plannen hebt, kun je de geselecteerde mannetjes wat laten groeien, om hun eigenschappen te ontdekken. De toppen hebben nogal wat dagen nodig om zich te ontwikkelen totdat ze op het punt komen waarop ze openbreken. Het rekken van de groeitijd door vroeg-rijpende toppen te verwijderen, geeft je als slimme kweker een mooi zicht terwijl er geen risico is op bestuiving.

Met genoeg kweekruimte kun je de moeders van de mannetjes apart houden terwijl hun klonen pollen produceren. Afzonderlijk gekloonde vrouwtjes worden vaak bestoven door een selectie van een aantal mannetjes, waarna zaden worden geproduceerd en de toppenkwaliteit zichtbaar wordt. De vaders en moeders worden vervolgens geselecteerd voor de zaadproductie. Zelfs in een kleine ruimte kun je een redelijk kweekprogramma in werking stellen; cannabis in klein formaat kan daarbij zeer geschikt zijn. Je hoeft ook geen volwassen planten vast te binden. Cannabis planten die niet groter zijn dan je duim voorzien je van genoeg mannelijke en vrouwelijke plantenorganen om mee te kweken.

Atypische vrouwtjes veranderen in mannetjes tijdens de bloeiperiode en worden gebruikt voor kruisingen of lijnteelt, waarbij gibberellinezuur of colloïdaal zilver dagelijks over de vrouwelijke toppen wordt gesproeid. Dit is het proces waarbij feminized zaden worden gecreëerd. Feminized zaden worden, hoewel ze ietwat aan de dure kant zijn, steeds populairder, omdat ze iedere keer een vrouwelijk nageslacht garanderen.

SAP MAKEN & KOKEN

Sap Maken & Koken

Mannelijke en vrouwelijke vegetatieve cannabisplanten hebben dezelfde eigenschappen die goed zijn voor je gezondheid. De zuurprofielen zijn hetzelfde en beide zijn rijk aan fenolen en antioxidanten. Uitgeperste bladeren zijn een favoriet drankje voor velen en het menselijk lichaam reageert goed op pure, donkergroene voedingsmiddelen. Alles van de cannabis plant kan worden uitgeperst, behalve de zware takken en dikke stengels waar vaak veel vezels in zitten.Gerelateerd verhaalTop 10 Cannabisrecepten

Als je pollen gebruikt, voeg dan eerst carboxylaat toe aan je stash op dezelfde manier als bij toppen. Net als bij vrouwelijke toppen, zijn geactiveerde pollen krachtiger als ze zijn verzorgd en vervolgens klaar om mee te koken. Bij ieder cannabis recept kun je pollen gebruiken in plaats van gedroogde toppen, waarbij vooral olieen boter een basisbeginsel zijn van het canna-koken en je hier dan ook het beste mee kunt beginnen. Vervolgens ben je voorbereid om op ieder moment te gaan koken.

Gedroogde pollen zijn geweldig om mee te koken en kunnen als meel worden afgewogen, waarbij de voordelen van de cannabinoïden rechtstreeks in het voedingsmiddel komen. Behandel pollen net als milde kief, maar wees voorzichtig; het is zo fijn dat een niesbui een wolk van fijnstof verspreidt over je hele keuken. Als je extracten hebt gemaakt om mee te bakken, gebruik dan simpelweg meer pollen olie om de kracht te versterken.

FIJNE VEZELS & BETERE WAARDE

Wanneer cannabis als hennep wordt gekweekt, stelen de mannelijke planten de show. In gemengde gewassen worden de mannelijke planten gebruikt voor dunne stoffen zoals linnen voor bedden, tafelkleden en zakdoeken. De vrouwtjes worden gebruikt voor grovere toepassingen zoals touw en canvas. Mannetjeswerden bewust apart gezet, gekweekt, geoogst en geschild van de vrouwtjes.

Zonder bestuiving, is er sprake van een aanzienlijke vermindering van de commerciële waarde van het gewas, aangezien het merendeel van die waarde afhankelijk is van de zaden. Cannabis zaden kunnen voor veel verschillende dingen worden gebruikt en hebben veel waarde in de industrie en als voeding. 80% van het totale gewicht van een commercieel hennep gewas bestaat uit zaden. Zonder mannetjes zou er geen bestuiving plaatsvinden.

CANNABIS ALS COMBINATIE PLANT

Cannabis Als Combinatie Plant

Cannabis heeft als aanvulling op het menselijk lichaam ontelbare voordelen. Vezelrijk, energievol, heilzaam, de lijst is langer dan dit artikel. Rondom het huis gekweekt, biedt cannabis weerstand tegen plagen zoals vliegen en muggen. Zelfs thee gemaakt van de bladeren en toppen is een perfect zoet-ruikend insectenwerend middel. Een papje gemaakt van de bladeren heeft ontstekingsremmende eigenschappen en vermindert aanzienlijk blauwe plekken.

Als aanvulling op andere planten, werd cannabis vaak gekweekt rondom andere gewassen, dankzij haar vermogen om plagen af te stoten. Het werd zelfs ooit onkruid genoemd, omdat het zo overmatig in de buurt van kanalen, sloten en duikers groeide. Aangezien het zo snel groeit, verdrijft cannabis veel ongewenste onkruidsoorten zoals schadelijke hoornbloem en bestrijdt het verschillende soorten dodelijke aaltjes.

Cannabis voorkomt ook dat verschillende lucht en bodemplagen populaire commerciële gewassen aantasten, zoals katoen (katoenwormen), aardappelen (schimmel in de vorm van aardappelziekte, en cystenaaltjes) en kool (koolrupsen). Mannetjes produceren, net als vrouwtjes, een aanzienlijke hoeveelheid terpenen. Vooral limoneen en pineen staan bekend om hun insectenwerende kwaliteiten.

De lange penwortel en brede wortelmat worden geliefd om hun vermogen om voedingsarme aarde te doorbreken en te beluchten. Gebruikt als tussengewas of op braakliggende velden, stimuleert cannabis de brosheid van de bodem en de waterpenetratie, en zorgt de dekking van de bladeren voor een dikke laag vitaminerijke mulch, wanneer de planten ouder worden.


Geschreven door: Zamnesia

Zamnesia verbetert continu haar psychedelische producten, assortiment en kennis. Gedreven door de geest van Zammi, streeft Zamnesia ernaar om jou nauwkeurige, feitelijke en informatieve content te bieden.
Ontdek onze schrijvers

Posted on Leave a comment

How industrial hemp is made

Hemp is a distinct variety of the plant species Cannabis sativa L. that grows to a height anywhere from 4-15 ft (1.2-4.5 m) and up to 0.75 in (2 cm) in diameter. The plant consists of an inner layer called the pith surrounded by woody core fiber, which is often referred as hurds. Bast fibers form the outer layer. The primary bast fiber is attached to the core fiber by pectin—a glue-like substance. The primary fibers are used for textiles, cordage, and fine paper products. The wood-like core fiber is used for animal bedding, garden mulch, fuel, and an assortment of building materials.

Due to the similar leaf shape, hemp is frequently confused with marijuana, another cannabis plant. The major difference is their tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content, the ingredient that produces the high when smoked. Marijuana can contain as much as 20% THC, compared to less than 1% for industrial hemp. Despite this difference, some countries are reluctant to legalize growing of hemp (especially the United States), since there is a fear this will make it more difficult to control the use of the drug. Most hemp varieties also have a hollow stalk that have a very high fiber content (35%), in contrast to marijuana varieties that usually have a solid stalk having low fiber content (15%).

Canada is one country that has legalized hemp, though with certain restrictions. The maximum allowable THC concentration is 0.3% and all hemp farmers are required to undergo a criminal-records check, as well as obtain a license from Health Canada. Despite these restrictions, hemp production has increased threefold in just a year, from 6, 175 acres (61.75 hectares) harvested in 1998 to nearly 20,000 acres (200 hectares) in 1999. Over 95% of the acres grown in 1999 in Canada were for hemp grain.

Farmers who grow hemp claim it is a great rotation crop and can be substituted for almost any harvest. It grows without requiring pesticides and is good at aerating the soil. On a per-acre basis, one estimate claims hemp nets farmers more income ($250-$300) than either corn or soybeans ($100-$200). A full crop of hemp only takes 90 days to grow, yielding four times more paper per acre, when compared over a similar 20 year period with redwood trees in the northwest United States. However, there are other varieties of trees that yield two to three times more than hemp.

Advocates of hemp claim that it can be used in 25,000 different products, from clothing to food to toiletries. Until the nineteenth century, hemp was used in 90% of ships’ canvas sails, rigging, and nets (and thus it was a required crop in the American colonies). Today, hemp fiber is being used as a replacement for fiberglass in automotive components and made into cloth for window dressings, shower curtains, and upholstery. China is the world’s largest producer of hemp fabric, whereas India produces the most hemp overall.

Other products made from hemp fiber include: insulation, particleboard, fiberboard, rope, twine, yarn, newsprint, cardboard, paper, horse stable bedding, and compost. Hemp bedding has been found superior to straw and other materials for horse stalls in reducing the smell of ammonia. Hemp seed is used to make methanol and heating oil, salad oil, pharmaceuticals, soaps, paint, and ink.

Currently 32 countries, including Canada, Great Britain, France, and China, allow farmers to grow industrial hemp. The current hemp market for sales and exports in North America is estimated at between $50-$ 100 million per year. Unites States imports of industrial woven fabrics made from hemp totaled $2.9 million in 1997. Import volume jumps to around $40 million when other products—such as paper, shampoo, and oil—are included. Textile uses of hemp represent 5% of hemp products produced in Canada.

History

Hemp was the first plant to be domestically cultivated around 8000 B.C. in Mesopotamia (present-day Turkey). Hemp was grown for fiber and food. It was recorded as being harvested in central Asia around 6500 B.C. Several centuries later, China started growing hemp as a crop and later used it in medicine. By 2700 B.C. , the Middle East, Africa, and most of Asia used hemp for fabric, rope, medicine, and food. Hemp was introduced to Europe 400 years later. The oldest surviving piece of paper, a 100% Chinese hemp parchment, was dated to A.D. 770.

From 1000 B.C. to the nineteenth century, hemp was the world’s largest agricultural crop, where it was also used for paper and lamp oil. During this period, several well-known books, including the Bible and Alice in Wonderland, were printed on hemp paper, and several famous artists painted on hemp canvas. The first crop in North America was planted by a French botanist in Nova Scotia in 1606. Thomas Jefferson drafted the United States Declaration of Independence on hemp paper and grew hemp him-self. Two centuries later, the United States and Canada put a stop cannabis cultivation in 1937 with the Marijuana Tax Act (this put a one dollar per ounce tax on any hemp manufacturers), which was later lifted during the World War II effort.

Global production of hemp has been declining since the 1960s, from over 300,000 short tons (272,160 t) of hemp fiber and tow in 1961 to 69,000 short tons (62,597t) in 1997. China accounts for 36% of this production and 73% of grain production. This has dropped from 80,000 to 37, 000 short tons (72,576 to 33,566 t) over the same period. Around 1994, there were 23 paper mills using hemp fiber, at an estimated world production of 12,000 short tons (10,886 t) per year. Most of these mills were located in China and India for producing printing and writing paper. Others produced specialty papers, including cigarette paper. The average hemp pulp and paper mill produces around 5,000 short tons (4,536 t) per year, compared to wood pulp mills at 250,000 short tons (226,800t) per year.

However, in the last decade, the number of companies trading in and manufacturing hemp products has increased dramatically. The North America market is still in its infancy since Canada just legalized hemp production and sale in 1998. Hemp cultivation tests in the United States began a year later though it is still illegal to grow it commercially.

Raw Materials

Fiber processing uses few chemicals, if any at all. However, the fiber may be blended with other materials, such as synthetic fibers or resins as binders, depending on the final product being made. For paper making, water and chemicals (sodium hydroxide or sulfur compounds) are mixed with the fibers to remove the natural glue components.

The Manufacturing Process

Cultivation and harvesting

Hemp is an annual plant that grows from seed. It grows in a range of soils, but tends to grow best on land that produces high yields of corn. The soil must be well drained, rich in nitrogen, and non-acidic. Hemp prefers a mild climate, humid atmosphere, and a rainfall of at least 25-30 in (64-76 cm) per year. Soil temperatures must reach a minimum of 42-46°F (5.5-7.7°C) before seeds can be planted.

  • 1 The crop is ready for harvesting high quality fiber when the plants begin to shed pollen, in mid-August for North America. Harvesting for seed occurs four to six weeks later. Fiber hemp is normally ready to harvest in 70-90 days after seeding. A special machine with rows of independent teeth and a chopper is used. To harvest hemp for textiles, specialized cutting equipment is required. Combines are used for harvesting An example of hemp and hemp fibers.An example of hemp and hemp fibers. grain, which are modified to avoid machine parts being tangled up with bast fiber.
  • 2 Once the crop is cut, the stalks are allowed to rett (removal of the pectin [binder] by natural exposure to the environment) in the field for four to six weeks—depending on the weather—to loosen the fibers. While the stalks lay in the field, most of the nutrients extracted by the plant are returned to the soil as the leaves decompose. The stalks are turned several times using a special machine for even retting and then baled with existing hay harvesting equipment. Bales are stored in dry places, including sheds, barns, or other covered storage. The moisture content of hemp stalks should not exceed 15%. When planted for fiber, yields range from 2-6 short tons (1.8-5.4t) of dry stalks per acre, or from 3-5 short tons (2.7-4.5 t) of baled hemp stalks per acre in Canada.

Grain processing

  • 3 Hemp seeds must be properly cleaned and dried before storing. Extraction of oil usually takes place using a mechanical expeller press under a nitrogen atmosphere, otherwise known as mechanical cold pressing. Protection from oxygen, light, and heat is critical for producing a tasty oil with an acceptable shelf-life. Solvent extraction methods are also emerging for removing oil since they achieve higher yields. Such methods use hexan, liquid carbon dioxide, or ethanol as the solvent. Refining and deodorizing steps may be required for cosmetics manufacturers.
  • 4 A dehulling step, which removes the crunchy skin from the seed using a crushing machine, may be required. Modifications to existing equipment may be required to adequately clean the seeds of hull residues.

Fiber processing

  • 5 To separate the woody core from the bast fiber, a sequence of rollers (breakers) or a hammermill are used. The bast fiber is then cleaned and carded to the desired core content and fineness, sometimes followed by cutting to size and baling. After cleaning and carding, secondary steps are often required. These include matting for the production of non-woven mats and fleeces, pulping (the breakdown of fiber bundles by chemical and physical methods to produce fibers for paper making), and steam explosion, a chemical removal of the natural binders to produce a weavable fiber. Complete processing lines for fiber hemp have outputs ranging from 2-8 short tons/hour (1.8-7.2 t/hr).

Packaging

  • 6 The primary fiber is pressed into a highly compressed bale, similar to other fibers like cotton, wool, and polyester. Other products, such as horse bedding, are packaged in a compressed bale.

Paper making

  • 7 Bast fibers are usually used in paper, which are put into a spherical tank called a digester with water and chemicals. This mixture is heated for up to eight hours at elevated temperature and pressure until all fibers are separated from each other. Washing with excess water removes the chemicals and the extracted binding components (pectin). The clean fibers are then fed into a machine called a Hollander beater, which consists of a large tub equipped with a wheel revolving around a horizontal axis. This beating step, which lasts for up to 12 hours, cuts the fibers to the desired length and produces the required surface roughness for proper bonding. Bleaching chemicals are sometimes added during this step or to separate tanks with the fibers. The bleached pulp is then pumped to the paper machine or pressed to a dryness suitable for transportation to a paper mill at another location.

Quality Control

Hemp fibers are tested for tensile strength, fineness (fiber diameter), and the color is recorded. Moisture content is recorded during every stage of the growing and production process. The THC content of the plant is also contiguously tested to make sure that the level does not exceed the 0.3% mark. Research is still being conducted on the effects that hemp would have on the industry. Set standards are constantly being altered and changed.

Byproducts/Waste

The harvested hemp not used is burned. During fiber processing, the core fiber is saved and usually used to make paper, horse bedding, or construction materials. Most hemp producers recycle the core fiber by removing dust, then baling and packaging. The dust can be pressed into pellets used for fuel. The dirt and small chips of core are also used as a high nutrient soil additive.

The Future

Where it is legal, the hemp industry has been growing at an annual growth rate of 20%. Other potential uses are being developed. For instance, hemp meal has demonstrated it can be used as a food ingredient for aquiculture farms, specifically freshwater fish and shrimp. Even hemp beer has entered the Canadian market, though it is expected to remain a small part of beer sales. Composite materials for the building industry are also being investigated.

Using hemp as a source of food may become the largest application, since hemp seeds have much nutritional value. The seed contains essential fatty acids, protein, calcium, iron, zinc, and vitamins B, C, and E. Hemp seed can be made into oil or flour and can also be eaten whole, since it tastes similar to pine nuts or sunflower seeds.

The outlook for hemp in the United States is uncertain since it is still illegal to grow it. There are 10 states that passed legislation in 1998 to allow growing hemp for research purposes—Arkansas, California, Hawaii, Illinois, Minnesota, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, and Virginia—and a number of other states are considering it. However, federal law still prohibits growing industrial hemp. The Drug Enforcement Agency will have to change its mind before any market can be developed in the United States. Once that happens, hemp could become a billion dollar crop if there is enough investment and interest, prices are competitive, and high quality products can be made. Processing technology also needs to be upgraded for higher value-added products.

Where to Learn More

Books

Schreiber, Gisela.The Hemp Handbook. Munich, Germany: Wilhelm Heyne Verlag GMBH & Co. KG, 1997.

Periodicals

Adams, John. “Dope Idea: U. Minnesota Could Research Uses of Industrial Hemp.” Minnesota Daily (March 30, 1999).

Anonymous. “Ag Study: Market for Hemp is Thin.” Dese Moines Register (January 30, 2000).

Kane, Mari. “Hemp Industry Prepares to Grow.” In Business (November/December 1999).

Katz, Helena. “Smoking Out New Hemp Markets.” Marketing (November 22,1999).

Nickson, Carole. “All-purpose Hemp a Retail Find.” Home Textiles Today (November 15, 1999).

Sturgeon, Jeff. “Hemp-Gooods Shop Capitalizes on Plant’s Versatility.” The Roanoke Times (August 8, 1999).

von Roekel, Jr., Gertjan. “Hemp Pulp and Paper Production.” ATO-DLO Agrotechnology (1994).

von Steinberg, Bob. “In Canada, hemp hasn’t lived up to the hype.” Star Tribune (October 16, 1999).

Ward, Joe. “Hemp Advocates Assail U.S. Report.”Courier-Journal (January 26, 2000).

Other

Geofrey G. Kime, President, Hempline Inc. 11157 Longwoods Rd., Delaware, Ontario, Canada, NOL lEO. (519) 652-0440http://www.hempline.com . info@hempline.com.

North American Industrial Hemp Council, P.O. Box 259329, Madison, WI 53725-9329. (608) 258-0243http://www.naihc.org . info@naihc.org.

Peter Dragla. A Maritime Industrial Hemp Product Marketing Study. Canadian Department of Agriculture and Marketing, 1999. http://agri.gov.ns.ca/pt/agron/hemp/hemp-masaf.htm (January 2001).

— Laurel M. Sheppard

Read more: http://www.madehow.com/Volume-6/Industrial-Hemp.html#ixzz6VoWmAiBk

Posted on Leave a comment

Processing and Farming Equipment in the Hemp Industry

From cultivation to extraction, the hemp industry requires highly specialized technology to flourish.

AMANDA LUKETAAmanda Luketa is a freelance technical writer and former cannabis industry mechanical engineer. She believes strongly in helping others, federal legalization, and the power of curiosity. In her free time, she enjoys rock climbing and yoga.

With the passing of the Farm Bill, the hemp industry has seen a long-awaited boom in production and revenue. There are many uses for hemp, from textiles to products containing only CBD, with some companies even using hemp as a biomass energy source. The equipment for producing hemp products is complex and requires technology from various disciplines. Take a look at some of the specialized processing and farming equipment used within the hemp industry.

HEMP FARMING EQUIPMENT

There are many ways to grow hemp, with some methods being more sophisticated than others. Hemp farming requires substantial agricultural knowledge and research, as the exact equipment used will depend on the precise growing methodology.  

Another critical factor in which equipment a farmer chooses is whether or not the hemp will be used for textiles or for CBD oil. If used for textiles, hemp can be planted at a much higher density – up to 400,000 plants per square acres – but if CBD production is the goal, the density drops substantially to a maximum of around 1,600 plants per acre.

This is because textile hemp is grown similarly to wheat, with tall stalks that are then used for industrial applications. CBD hemp, on the other hand, is cultivated to be small and leafy, staying lower to the ground, with the plant’s flowers used for oil production.  

Here is some of the equipment involved in the hemp farming process:

Seed Drill

A seed drill streamlines the process of sowing hemp seeds and can be used to plant many acres of the crop efficiently.

Transplanter

If not starting from seeds, a transplanter can be used to move a substantial quantity of early hemp plants into the field, placing them with the appropriate spacing and position.

Combine

Also used for harvesting wheat, a combine is used to cut and collect the hemp stalks and grain material. This equipment is typically used when harvesting textile-based hemp crops, as it is a rough process that would compromise the structure of the plant when used for CBD production.

CBD Hemp Harvester

Explicitly designed to harvest hemp used for CBD oil production, this harvester works differently than the combine. The CBD hemp harvester carefully cuts each hemp plant and loads it onto a trailer, without damaging the plant’s structure. A typical harvester processes up to 5 acres of CBD hemp per day, and can also be used for cannabis crops.

HEMP PROCESSING EQUIPMENT

The bulk of the processing requirements for hemp consist of decortication. Hemp decortication is the process of separating the hemp fiber from the plant stalk. Hemp is also processed into CBD oil by companies in the hemp extraction space. Take a look at the cutting-edge technology designed for hemp processing:

Continuous Countercurrent Reactor for Decortication

The Continuous Countercurrent Reactor (CCR), developed by PureHemp Technology out of Fort Lupton, CO, is designed to streamline the decortication process. The reactor works by passing hemp stalks through the machine in the opposite direction as a liquid reagent, to efficiently separate the hemp into pulp and sugar co-products.

The CCR can be used for efficient biomass production, as part of the effort to reduce the planet’s dependency on fossil fuels.

R-2 Decorticator System

Developed by CannaSystems, a Canada-based company serving the industrial hemp industry, the R-2 decorticator is designed to be a semi-portable turnkey solution for separating hemp. The unit is a hydraulic, diesel-powered system, and can process up to five tons of hemp per hour.  

HempTrain for Consumer Products

This industrial powerhouse, developed by Canadian Greenfield, is designed to process and decorticate hemp into up to nine different products.

Applications for these products range from hemp-based kitty litter to hemp skin care products and potting mixes.

Precision KPD Series for Extraction

Designed to operate on an industrial scale, the Precision KPD extraction system can process over 25,000 pounds of hemp per day for manufacture into CBD oil. Features include a continuous feed system and compatibility with ethanol, heptane, or hexane as an extraction solvent.

GROWING HEMP IS A SCIENCE

Those considering entering the exciting space of hemp cultivation and processing must do thorough research before beginning an operation. Hemp is unique in that it draws from both conventional agricultural methods, as well as precise science from the cannabis industry. Growing hemp for CBD oil production may prove more of a challenge than for textiles, though both can provide a rewarding opportunity for the new or experienced farmer.

Posted on 4 Comments

Hempcrete

Hempcrete or hemp concrete being a carbon-negative (carbon consuming) material is a great alternative for contractors to use in construction works. Hempcrete is prepared by mixing hemp shives (the inner woody core of hemp plant), water, and lime as the binding agent. Hempcrete has low density and excellent thermal and acoustic insulation properties.

There are a lot of hempcrete products available in the market, but the one that stands out is Hempcrete block. Hempcrete blocks are produced by the pressing, ageing and packing of hempcrete through appropriate machinery. The product finally obtained is solid but light, durable, and with excellent insulation properties.

The main source of strength of hempcrete comes from the high silica content (approx. 70%) in hemp shives, which makes it easy for the raw materials to bind together.

Production of Hempcrete Blocks

Earlier, Hempcrete blocks were prepared right at the site by mixing the raw materials and placing the mixture in the formwork, or by using equipment that required a highly qualified workforce.

But today, with the increase in demand and technological advancement, factories have been set up to produce hempcrete-based materials. The production process is divided into three simple steps :

1) Mixing

The raw materials (hemp shives, lime-based binder and water) of hempcrete are proportionately dosed and mixed together.

2) Moulding

Hempcrete obtained is poured in the blocks of widths between 6 and 30 cm in a special press.

3) Open-air Curing

After a while, the frail blocks of hempcrete are placed on an automatic conveyor belt which takes them to a storage area for open air-drying. This brings strength and hardness to the blocks. Depending on the width of blocks, it takes around 6-10 weeks for the blocks to become ready to use.

Applications of Hempcrete Blocks

  1. As external and internal Wall insulation
  2. As floors and roof Insulation
  3. Underneath floors
  4. As Plasters
  5. New Builds
  6. For Insulating older buildings
  7. Renovation

Advantages of Hempcrete Blocks

  1. Hempcrete has a negative carbon footprint of -72.0 kg/m² of wall which makes hempcrete block construction energy efficient and eco-friendly technique.
  2. The construction doesn’t take much time and reduces the labour costs and results in a cleaner site.
  3. Hempcrete is a low thermal mass material which means that it absorbs the heat during the day and emits it out during the night thus providing energy-cost savings.
  4. The quasi ductile behaviour of hempcrete blocks makes it reusable without affecting its structural properties.
  5. Hempcrete is a microbe and parasite resistant material.
  6. Hempcrete blocks have a fire-rating of 60-120 minutes.
  7. The low U-value (thermal transmittance) and enhanced insulation of hempcrete blocks help deliver low operational costs through reduced heating and cooling requirements.
  8. Hempcrete blocks are light in weight and are easy to transport and handle.
  9. Hempcrete blocks have excellent heat and sound insulation properties.
  10. Hempcrete blocks help in constituting breathable walls.

Disadvantages of Hempcrete Blocks

  1. Hempcrete has a low compressive strength and elastic modulus which makes it unsuitable for bearing direct loads- It needs a frame to carry the loads.
  2. Hempcrete walls are thicker which risks the reduction in carpet area.
  3. The raw material hemp of hempcrete is illegal to grow at a lot of places which makes it necessary for you to have it shipped from some other place.
  4. Forms are needed which must be continuously raised as you build.
Akshay Dashore

Akshay Dashore

EDITORAkshay is a Civil Engineer who has experience in various Pile foundation projects. Civil Engineering intrigues him but what intrigues him, even more, is the implementation of hybridized materials in construction projects. He is the author, editor, and partner at theconstructor.org.

Posted on Leave a comment

SO WHAT DO YOU DO WITH ALL OF THE LEAVES, STALKS, STEMS, ROOTS, AND EVEN SOIL?

Biomass, or the leftover plant material, can be used in a numerous ways. Biomass comes in a number of its own varieties. Some farmers mulch the entire plant. Others focus solely on leaves or roots. Some solely use trim to create high-potency oils. Using biomass promotes regenerative, sustainable gardening, and can also be quite enjoyable.

Many farmers sell biomass to concentrate processors. This is a great way to increase revenue and build relationships within the local cannabis community.

These leftover materials can be used to make a number of specialized products. Take a look at just some of the ways to utilize the rest of your hemp and cannabis harvest.

WHAT TO DO WITH HEMP AND CANNABIS STALKS?

The stalks of hemp pants can be broken down and shipped off for use in all kinds of textile industries. These industries include building materials, garments, and even utility equipment. Businesses with accounts on Kush.comcan connect directly with buyers from across the nation. Create your free account now by clicking here.

If you don’t have a supply chain, and aren’t a member of Kush.com, then you could simply mulch them. Mulching can be done by shredding the stalks. Shredding creates more surface area for a quicker decomposition. Shredded stalks can be applied on top of the soil in your garden, yard or in the compost bin. 

Mulching or composting is very valuable, because it gives life back to the soil. In compost micro-organisms break down organic matter. This produces nitrogen and other minerals in the process. 

Mulched stalks can be returned to a crop next season. You could also use them to grow a variety of other crops if you choose, because it’s nutrient dense. 

In mulch, the shredded pieces of stalk decrease evaporation and allow the soil to hold moisture more effectively. This can be great for growing in arid, hot climates. 

A micro-biome is also created when mulch is applied to the ground as well. This creates an environment for beneficial bugs, bacteria, and other wildlife to grow and thrive

Stalks can be shredded by purchasing or renting a wood chipper. You could also simply mow them with a gas powered mower or tractor with a shredder attached.

WHAT TO DO WITH CANNABIS LEAVES?

Sugar leaves are rich and coated with trichomes giving them higher CBD and THC content. Although not as potent as their bud brothers and sisters, they can still be used to make tea, hash, or topical oils. 

For hash, sugar leaves can be dried, chopped, and further processed into hash or cannabutter. These processed items can go into a wide variety of products.

Larger fan leaves are perfect for making teas. Fan leaves can be dried and stored in a sealed container with a silicone packet to regulate moisture. When you’re ready, the leaves can be placed in a cup, bathed in hot water and sipped to your enjoyment and leisure. 

For oil production, a great number of leaves have to be collected. Once you have enough, press them to gain a rich oil that can be used in a multitude of products or distributed on it’s own.

WHAT TO DO WITH CANNABIS ROOTS?

As with all parts of biomass, roots can be used in a multitude of ways. Roots have a long history of medicinal use due to their anti-inflammatory properties. 

Roots can be brewed into a tea for gastrointestinal relief. They are also commonly processed into topical ointments or salves for skin ailments.  
Processing roots has been done for generations across the world. Creams and salves have been known to help with arthritis, gout, burns, rashes, and muscle pain. 

Want to give it a try at home? Boil some into your next cup of tea or process a few roots for use in a topical lotion to treat aches and pains. To learn more on the benefits of cannabis roots check out The National Library of Medicine.

WHAT TO DO WITH CANNABIS SOIL?

Let us not forget about the soil. Here is where all the magic begins. Feed the soil and it will feed your plant. 

At the end of the harvest, soil is low in minerals and nutrients, but can still be used a number of ways. If you plan on replanting in the same soil, try applying some minerals and additions. Compost or a seed starting solid fertilizer (NPK 4-4-4) are great places to start. 

Also, before planting any new seeds or started plants, give the soil a good till or cultivation. This can be as simple as stirring the new compost or fertilizer into the soil with your hand if it’s in pots. You could also get a cultivator and till up the ground if outdoors. This not only combines the soil with the new amendments, but it also introduces a vital compound into the equation, oxygen. 

This aerates the soil and allows life to grow more vigorously. In this case microorganisms and beneficial fungi. This simple task can go a long way in starting your next crop in the right direction. If you plan on replacing all your potting soil with new potting soil, the old soil can be composted as well. 

When going this route, be sure to combine the soil with as close to equal parts brown material ( dried leaves, dried stalks, dried “brown” organic matter) and green material (freshly cut “green” leaves, stems, veggies, etc.). This allows the compost to start it’s process of new life with the right balance of ingredients. 

Remember composting isn’t only decomposing matter, it’s also consuming matter. It’s about creating the right environment for beneficial bacteria, fungi, insects, and worms to live, work, and feed in harmony. Giving you a nutrient rich source for enriching your soil and growing healthy crops for years to come.

[PRO TIP] Remember that any plants or soil with pests or disease should not be composted. These will continue to grow and infect your compost bin and every future crop it is applied to. A trash heap, landfill, or burn pile is more suited place to dispose of it

#HEMPNATIONONE #hemp #leaves #stalks #roots #soil #garbagedoesntexist #material #life #regrowth #mulch #environment#