It was in October 2020 when we announced that the European Parliament had voted in favour of restoring the authorised THC level on the field from 0,2 % to 0,3 %.
One year later, and after long discussions aiming at working out compromises between the three EU institutions, the final proposal of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) was adopted today by the council, following the final vote at the European Parliament on November 24.
The new CAP, that will enter into force on January 1st, 2023, recognises the possibility for farmers to receive Direct Payments for hemp varieties registered in the EU Catalogue that have a maximum level of THC of 0,3 %.
This change entails a potential enlargement of the number of hemp varieties accepted under the EU Catalogue. As a reminder, this level only applies if farmers want to receive direct payments, meaning that in Europe it is possible to plant hemp with THC level on the field over 0,3 %, provided it is authorised by national regulations (e.g., 0,6 % in Italy; 1 % in Czech Republic).
“I have been fighting for this moment for over a decade. My special thanks go to our amazing team in Brussels, who have made this possible.” Says Daniel Kruse, pioneer of the hemp industry and President of the European Industrial Hemp Association (EIHA).
“This is a great day for the hemp sector and another step towards a greener future for Europe. However, if compared to other countries worldwide, 0, 3 % is still a low limit; for instance, Switzerland, in the heart of Europe, has a higher number, and other EU countries already work with higher limits as well.
“Scientific studies and many years of experience prove that higher limits pose absolutely no safety risk for consumers. The EU lays the foundation for a growing, green and sustainable industrial hemp sector across our Union and it has the chance to achieve a level playing field again in global competition when it comes to the industrial hemp sector.”
“I am proud of what has been achieved today. We worked hard to ensure that hemp had the recognition it deserves in the Common Agricultural Policy. I would say that this small step reflects that EU legislators are closer to fully acknowledging and recognising the existence of a legitimate European hemp sector.” Says Lorenza Romanese, EIHA Managing Director.
“However, as I have said other times, this is not it. We need to keep working together, as there are still other areas where hemp deserves to be better regulated, but we are on the right track.”
Hemp (Cannabis sativa) is cultivated for its fiber (bast fiber) and its edible seeds as well as some medicinal products. When bast fibers are separated from the hemp stem, what’s left is called hemp hurds. These woody residues are the least valuable part of the hemp stem and are treated as a by-product of fiber production, even though they represent the largest fraction of the hemp plant.
Extracting High-value Products from Hemp Waste
Hemp (Cannabis sativa) is cultivated for its fiber (bast fiber) and its edible seeds as well as some medicinal products . When bast fibers are separated from the hemp stem, what’s left is called hemp hurds. These woody residues are the least valuable part of the hemp stem and are treated as a by-product of fiber production, even though they represent the largest fraction of the hemp plant. Hemp hurds can be used in a range of applications such as animal bedding, construction materials, and garden mulch , but they are still generally considered as waste.
Slow Pyrolysis However, thermochemical processing of hemp hurds can produce some high-value products. One particular thermochemical process called slow pyrolysis can be used to convert hemp hurds into biochar, liquids (distillates), and gases . These are produced in approximately equal amounts, although the process conditions can be adjusted to maximize the yield of a particular fraction.
Slow pyrolysis is usually used to convert biomass into biochar, a type of carbon-rich charcoal that is used as a soil improver or to store carbon. Liquid distillates are also produced, but they are considered a by-product and are often burned or dumped. However, these liquid distillates contain bioactive compounds and could be collected to generate additional income.
In this study, four types of industrial hemp hurds were thermally processed and converted into liquid distillates by slow pyrolysis at different temperatures . The team investigated the chemical composition of the distillates to identify possible valuable molecules or molecule groups. They believe this is the first time that large samples (kilograms) have been studied in this way. Previous studies have focused on small, lab-scale samples (grams) .
The authors processed the hurds using slow pyrolysis at relatively low process temperatures from room temperature up to the maximum operating temperature of 350 ̊C. They collected raw distillates at three stages of the slow pyrolysis process (drying, torrefaction, and pyrolysis).
Detailed Analysis of Samples Various analytical techniques were employed to study the samples. These included Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC–HRMS), and two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (2D GC-MS). For example, FTIR spectroscopy was used to obtain information regarding functional groups of all the hemp hurd distillate fractions. All spectra were measured using Bruker’s Alpha FTIR spectrometer equipped with attenuated total reflection diamond, a sensitive 2 × 2 mm diamond crystal surface, and sample compartment RT-DLaTGS.
The team identified and measured some potentially valuable molecules for the first time. The analyses showed remarkable differences in the concentration of compounds in different distillates. The relevant compounds came from three different hemp hurd samples, especially from torrefaction and pyrolysis phase distillates condensed below 100 ̊C.
Acetic acid was the main component of all samples. Other interesting compounds included guaiacol and syringol derivatives such as 2,6- Dimethoxyphenol, guaiacol (2-Methoxyphenol), vanillin, and eugenol. Most of these compounds are expensive to make because they appear in low concentrations in distillates, which means they must be separated and purified (although several modern scalable techniques are available). Such compounds could be used as purified products for nutritional, pharmaceutical, and agricultural purposes. Vanillin and eugenol, for example, are used as ingredients by the functional food and pharmaceutical sectors. The authors estimate that one ton of hurds (€200 at current prices) would produce about 300 kg biochar (worth around €400 at current prices). It would also produce about 40 kg of acetic acid, the main compound in the distillates, worth around €100 as a bulk product. One ton of hurds would generate around 1.3 kg of 1-hydroxybutan-2-one, the most expensive of the minor distillate compounds. In principle, this could be purified to higher than 95% purity and sold for €1300–6500. 1-hydroxybutan-2-one is often used as a flavor or fragrance agent.
Conclusion This study provides useful baseline data for chemical profiling of wood distillates, especially hemp hurd distillates. It also shows clear potential to generate high-value products from hemp hurds by utilizing slow pyrolysis to generate biochar and distillates that contain potentially useful ingredients. The whole process can be optimized to generate the most valuable products, varying factors such as temperature, heating rates, and residence times. Further processing of distillates would involve separation and purification procedures such as short path distillation and centrifugal partition chromatography. The researchers recommend further research to evaluate the economic potential in detail, for example, by considering the purification process costs and the market value and volume of high-value chemicals, and the business potential in general. Bruker offers the broadest range of analytical techniques used in the emerging global Cannabis Industry already today. The portfolio includes benchtop and floor-standing NMR, optical methods like FTIR and Raman spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. This makes Bruker the only end-to-end solution provider with applications tagging into every stage of the Cannabis value chain. We enable our customers to generate new revenue streams and reduce waste.
Bruker does not support, encourage, or intend that its products or services be used in connection with any illegal use, cultivation or trade of cannabis or cannabis products. Bruker products are intended to be used only in compliance with all applicable laws in a manner that promotes public safety and in connection with any lawful and approved scientific or medical research activities.
A wind power company, SheerWind, from Minnesota USA has announced its new Invelox wind power generation technology. The company says its turbine could generate six times more energy than the amount produced by traditional turbines mounted on towers.via: News Direct
The future of packaging is ripe for capitalization by the drivers of sustainability culture. With the battle lines drawn and forces at play in motion, change is now inevitable. The question arises: how quickly can the industry grow in the space of the next decade?
With an increasing number of nations banning non-biodegradable and petroleum-based plastics in certain uses, the choices at hand have naturally led to bioplastics. Bioplastics are a major ingredient of the renewable packaging industry. We derive them from various renewable agricultural crops, of which hemp is among the chief examples.
The Change for Hemp
The legal ramifications of the European Green Deal and the American Farm Bill of 2018 have created a microcosm where the sustainability discussion has turned into corporate initiatives for crops like industrial hemp, which are a source for bioplastics and numerous other products. The smaller carbon footprint of industrial hemp plays its role in shaping consumer demands towards a greener future.
Farmers are now able to cultivate the plant in the U.S., due to its removal from the list of controlled substances. Agribusinesses and manufacturers are aware of the plant’s versatility, with uses in packaging, building construction, clothing, medicinal oils, edibles like protein powder and hemp hearts, hemp paper and rope. What was once George Washington’s strong consideration as a cash crop for his estate, may gradually become the world’s cash crop of choice.
Hemp’s Sustainability Beckons
Why is the crop unanimously superior in the aspect of eco-friendliness? Its growing requirements are frugal: water, soil nutrients and pesticides are not needed in large quantities. It absorbs great quantities of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and uses it to create 65-75% cellulose content within its biomass. Cellulose is vital in the manufacture of bioplastics. Hemp is also flexible within crop cycles, due to its small harvesting period of only 4 months.
Thus, farmers use it as a rotational crop, allowing them to also cultivate other crops after its harvest. High-quality crops like cotton, though superior in cellulose content and fibrous softness, require far more water quantities, soil nutrients and pesticides. Farmers face greater difficulties in cultivating cotton as a rotational crop, because it requires far more space and time.
Hemp Bioplastics For Packaging
We manufacture bioplastics from the hurd and cellulose of the hemp plant. Hemp bioplastics are biodegradable, and take up to a maximum of 6 months to completely decompose; by contrast, normal fossil-fuel-based plastic takes up to 1000 years to decompose.
Manufacturers incorporate these ingredients into existing manufacturing processes for regular plastics, such as injection molding. Thus, we can apply bioplastic ingredients to similar plastics applications, such as packaging, paneling, medical equipment and more. New technologies aren’t necessarily needed, so companies and manufacturers do not have any reservations about its viability as an industry.
Here are a few types of bioplastics derived from hemp:
Hemp Cellulose-based Bioplastics
This is a substance found in plant cell walls. We use cellulose to manufacture a broad range of unique plastics, including celluloid, rayon and cellophane. These plastics are usually entirely organic. We mix cellulose and its variations (such as nanocellulose, made from cellulose nanocrystals) with other ingredients, such as camphor, to produce thermoplastics and the like. Using natural polymer, we process a broad range of bioplastics and corresponding polymers. The difference in their chemical properties is down to the nature of the polymer chains and the extent of crystallization.
Composite Hemp-based Bioplastics
Composite plastics comprise organic polymers like hemp cellulose, as well as an addition of synthetic polymers. They also have reinforcement fibers to improve the strength of the bioplastic, which are also either organic or synthetic. Sometimes, we blend hemp cellulose with other organic polymers like shellac and tree resins. Inorganic fillers include fiberglass, talc and mica.
We call any natural polymer, when blended with synthetic polymers, a “bio composite” plastic. We measure and calibrate these ingredients according to the desired stiffness, strength and density of the eventual plastic product. Apart from packaging, manufacturers use these bioplastics for furniture, car panels, building materials and biodegradable bags.
A composite of polypropylene (PP), reinforced with natural hemp fibers, showed that hemp has a tensile strength akin to that of conventional fiberglass composites. Furthermore, malleated polypropylene (MAPP) composites, fortified with hemp fibers, significantly improved stress-enduring properties compared to conventional fiberglass composites.
Pure Organic Bioplastics With Hemp
We have already generated several bioplastics entirely from natural plant substances like hemp. Hemp fibers, when made alkaline with diluted sodium hydroxide in low concentrations, exhibit superior tensile strength. We have produced materials from polylactic acid (PLA) fortified with hemp fibers. These plastic materials showed superior strength than ones containing only PLA. For heavy-duty packaging, manufacturers use hemp fibers reinforced with biopolyhydroxybutyrate (BHP), which are sturdy enough.
With the world in a state of major change due to the coronavirus outbreak of 2020, the focus is back on packaging and delivery. In this volatile area, perhaps the industry can learn a few new tricks, instead of suffocating itself in old traditions and superficial opportunism. The permutations and combinations of bioplastic technology can serve a swath of packaging applications. We must thoroughly explore this technology.
Hemp’s Future in Packaging
Fossil fuel-based plastic polymers are non-renewable, highly pollutive and dangerous to ecosystems, due to their lifespans. They are some of the most destructive inventions of man, but thankfully could be held back by this crop. Industrial hemp upheld countless industries through human history and now is making a comeback. After existing in relative obscurity in the U.S. due to false connotations with the psychoactive properties of its cousin, it is now back in business.
With the American hemp industry on the verge of a revolution, hemp packaging is primed to take over a significant part of the global packaging sector. The political, economic and environmental incentives for companies to adopt bioplastics are legion. Its lower cost lends to its allure as well. Consumers and agribusinesses are following suit, making the choice to be environmentally-conscious. By 2030, it is estimated that 40% of the plastics industry will be bioplastics.
We can only mitigate the plastic pollution in oceans, landfills and elsewhere, with the use of biodegradable bioplastics; otherwise, animals, humans and plants are getting adversely affected by imperceptible microplastics that pervade vast regions of the Earth. With hemp bioplastics, we use the cleaner, renewable matter of plants to conserve the planet’s sanctity. We can expect this new technology to continue to light the way for other nations, societies and companies to build upon this sustainable plan.
Vishal Vivek is the CEO and Co-Founder at Hemp Foundation. Hemp Foundation’s mission is to fight global warming, plastic pollution, deforestation and wild species extinction through promotion of hemp in fashion industry and at the same time provide jobs to marginalized communities of artisans and farmers in rural Himalayan villages and give them global reach.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced this week that it is awarding a Washington State-based company a $100,000 grant to support the development of sustainable bricks made from industrial hemp.
Earth Merchant was one of 24 grant recipients under EPA’s small business innovation research program. The company’s hemp-based OlogyBricks are seen as a “durable, lightweight, carbon-negative” alternative to traditional construction bricks made of concrete or other materials.
EPA said in a notice that the hempcrete product “will improve energy efficiency and indoor air quality in single family homes and other architectural applications.”
“Industrial Hemp can be grown without pesticides or chemical fertilizers, requires less water than crops like cotton or corn, and reaches maturity one hundred days from planting,” the federal agency said. “Hemp photosynthesizes carbon dioxide with greater efficiency than trees and can be harvested twice per year, doubling the rate of carbon sequestration.”
Further, the hemp blocks can “improve health outcomes for residents” because they contain components that are “antifungal and antimicrobial, reducing the risks of airborne bacteria while also being vapor permeable.”
OlogyBricks also fully produced in the U.S., “where the industrial hemp supply has blossomed following passage of the 2018 Farm Bill” legalizing the crop, EPA said.
This isn’t the first time the agency has expressed interest in the environmental impact of hemp. In 2019, EPA awarded a roughly $12,000 grant to a student-led research team at the University of California, Riverside, to support a study on the use of hemp as an “industrially relevant renewable fiber for construction.”
Also that year, Rep. Tulsi Gabbard (D-HI) introduced a bill that sought to modernize the hemp industry, develop specific guidelines and encourage federal research into a wide-range of potential applications for the crop, including as a concrete alternative.
On another related note, a coalition of former President Donald Trump’s allies had explored whether they could privately fund a wall along the Mexican border that would be constructed using hemp blocks. Former White House Chief Strategist Steve Bannon said that the group was consulting with a Kansas-based hemp company about the possibility of erecting a hempcrete wall along the southern border.
De mannelijke marihuana planten worden vaak afgekraakt, maar hebben hun eigen speciale waarde. Overweeg de volgende keer, voordat je je mannetjes weggooit als je hun geslacht herkent, hun nut en haal alles uit je mannetjes.
WAT TE DOEN MET MANNELIJKE CANNABIS PLANTEN
De mannelijke cannabis plant wordt vaak belachelijk gemaakt en is vaak onbegrepen. De meeste kwekers gooien mannelijke planten weg zodra ze ze herkennen, wat niet heel gek is in een sinsemilla tuin. Maar denk, voordat je deze mannetjes uitroeit zodra ze hun ballen tonen, aan de volgende dingen, die je zomaar eens aangenaam zouden kunnen verrassen.
Hoewel ze meestal niet zo harsrijk zijn als sinsemilla vrouwtjes, bevatten volledig ontwikkelde mannetjes alsnog een verleidelijk cannabinoïden spectrum. En je krijgt veel, we herhalen, veel pollen van een mannelijke plant als je hem laat volgroeien. Mannelijke planten groeien ook sneller, worden hoger, en rijpen sneller dan vrouwtjes.
Er zit vaak een zonzijde aan wat kan worden beschouwd als een slechte situatie. Als je de pech hebt dat ieder zaadje van je aangeschafte reguliere zaden mannelijk blijkt te zijn, raak dan niet in paniek en gooi ze niet weg. Verzorg ze als een sinsemilla soort en laat je verrassen door de hoeveelheid pollen die je krijgt. En ja, van pollen kun je stoned worden!
Cannabis is een tweehuizige soort, wat inhoudt dat, in tegenstelling tot 80% van de plantensoorten op aarde, marihuana uit aparte mannelijke en vrouwelijke planten bestaat. Hermafrodieten komen echter soms ook voor, vooral als de planten blootgesteld worden aan externe stress of wanneer ze worden gekweekt in een slechte bodem. Hermafroditisme zorgt er vaak voor dat een plant kan overleven in barre omstandigheden. Consistente zelfbestuiving kan echter leiden tot verslechtering van de algehele gezondheid van verschillende generaties.
Bepaalde genen die door ouderplanten worden doorgegeven, leiden voortdurend tot aanpassingen van het nageslacht, waarbij het de beste eigenschappen van beide ouders behoudt. Iedere generatie is steeds beter in staat om te overleven. Dit leidt uiteindelijk tot landsoorten die goed gedijen in specifieke regio’s. Hoewel het niet in theorie is bewezen, houden sommige soorten die voortkomen uit binnen-soorten er meer van om binnen gekweekt te worden. Het klinkt misschien gek, maar sommige gekruiste soorten groeien buiten niet beter, zelfs niet in een vriendelijk klimaat.
Mannelijke planten produceren een overvloed aan fraaie pollen die door de wind worden verspreid. De stuifmeelzakken bestaan uit vijf geel-witte bladstelen, die de helmknoppen beschermen, waarin de pollenkorrels zich bevinden. Eenmaal volgroeid, springt het omhulsel open en geven de gezwollen helmknoppen hun stuifmeel af. Vrouwelijke planten hebben fijne stampers die zijn bedekt met kleverige hars, waarmee ze de tere pollen kunnen opvangen. Eenmaal bestoven, worden de stampers droog, sterven ze af en begint er zich een zaadje te vormen. Na een kleine zes weken zijn de zaden volgroeid en splijten ze de kelk open.
HASHISH & CONCENTRATEN
Normaal gesproken produceert een cannabis plant meer dan 50% aan mannetjes in een gewas, maar sommige zeer productieve soorten kunnen maar liefst 75-90% aan mannetjes voortbrengen. De natuur moet wel een reden hebben voor deze behoefte aan mannetjes, gezien iedere plant genoeg pollen aanmaakt om velden vol met vrouwtjes te bestuiven. Laten we deze pollen eens bekijken.
Net als bij vrouwelijke planten, bevatten de voortplantingsorganen van mannelijke planten meer cannabinoïden dan de rest van de plant. Klierharen omvatten de bloemkelk, bloemkroon en de meeldraden. Grote sessiele klieren lopen langs de zijden van de helmknop, tussen de vele stuifmeelkorrels in. Als het omhulsel van de knop breekt, komt de hars met het stuifmeel vrij. Net als bij vrouwelijke bloemen, speelt de soort een belangrijke rol bij de potentie van de toppen. Pollen die zijn gedroogd en geperst in een stuifmeel-per of net als ieder andere harsextractie zijn klaargemaakt, veroorzaken een aangename buzz bij iedereen. Mannetjes hebben geen gebrek aan cannabinoïden.Gerelateerd verhaalDe 5 Beste Manieren Om Hasj Te Maken
Het interessante is dat tijdens de vegetatieve groeifase, de mannetjes hogere concentraties THC laten zien in de bladeren dan vrouwtjes; alleen in de volwassen stadia ontwikkelen vrouwtjes een hoger THC-gehalte. Het vermogen om sinsemilla te creëren is absoluut weggelegd voor vrouwtjes, die daardoor de hoeksteen van de harsproductie zijn geworden. Mannetjes hebben een beperkte levensduur en er zijn helaas geen technieken bekend om de harsproductie te verhogen, en de bestuiving bij mannetjes te vertragen. Ze zijn nu eenmaal wat ze zijn.
KWEKEN & EVOLUTIE
Oorspronkelijke zijn mannetjes nodig voor kweken en voor de voortzetting van het mengen van bepaalde eigenschappen. Kweken wordt gebruikt om nieuwe soorten te ontwikkelen of om de puurheid van bestaande populaire soorten te behouden. Kweken kan ook worden ingezet om gewenste soorten te laten wennen aan specifieke regio’s als ze buiten worden gekweekt. Lijnteelt, terugkweek en andere homozygote trucs kunnen worden gehanteerd om de evolutie te laten versnellen, waardoor soms nieuwe en interessante eigenschappen de kop opsteken, en waarbij soms vreemde mutanten ontstaan die af en toe niet eens op cannabis lijken.
Je hoeft niet in paniek te raken als er mannetjes aanwezig zijn in je tuin. Als je kweek plannen hebt, kun je de geselecteerde mannetjes wat laten groeien, om hun eigenschappen te ontdekken. De toppen hebben nogal wat dagen nodig om zich te ontwikkelen totdat ze op het punt komen waarop ze openbreken. Het rekken van de groeitijd door vroeg-rijpende toppen te verwijderen, geeft je als slimme kweker een mooi zicht terwijl er geen risico is op bestuiving.
Met genoeg kweekruimte kun je de moeders van de mannetjes apart houden terwijl hun klonen pollen produceren. Afzonderlijk gekloonde vrouwtjes worden vaak bestoven door een selectie van een aantal mannetjes, waarna zaden worden geproduceerd en de toppenkwaliteit zichtbaar wordt. De vaders en moeders worden vervolgens geselecteerd voor de zaadproductie. Zelfs in een kleine ruimte kun je een redelijk kweekprogramma in werking stellen; cannabis in klein formaat kan daarbij zeer geschikt zijn. Je hoeft ook geen volwassen planten vast te binden. Cannabis planten die niet groter zijn dan je duim voorzien je van genoeg mannelijke en vrouwelijke plantenorganen om mee te kweken.
Atypische vrouwtjes veranderen in mannetjes tijdens de bloeiperiode en worden gebruikt voor kruisingen of lijnteelt, waarbij gibberellinezuur of colloïdaal zilver dagelijks over de vrouwelijke toppen wordt gesproeid. Dit is het proces waarbij feminized zaden worden gecreëerd. Feminized zaden worden, hoewel ze ietwat aan de dure kant zijn, steeds populairder, omdat ze iedere keer een vrouwelijk nageslacht garanderen.
SAP MAKEN & KOKEN
Mannelijke en vrouwelijke vegetatieve cannabisplanten hebben dezelfde eigenschappen die goed zijn voor je gezondheid. De zuurprofielen zijn hetzelfde en beide zijn rijk aan fenolen en antioxidanten. Uitgeperste bladeren zijn een favoriet drankje voor velen en het menselijk lichaam reageert goed op pure, donkergroene voedingsmiddelen. Alles van de cannabis plant kan worden uitgeperst, behalve de zware takken en dikke stengels waar vaak veel vezels in zitten.Gerelateerd verhaalTop 10 Cannabisrecepten
Als je pollen gebruikt, voeg dan eerst carboxylaat toe aan je stash op dezelfde manier als bij toppen. Net als bij vrouwelijke toppen, zijn geactiveerde pollen krachtiger als ze zijn verzorgd en vervolgens klaar om mee te koken. Bij ieder cannabis recept kun je pollen gebruiken in plaats van gedroogde toppen, waarbij vooral olieen boter een basisbeginsel zijn van het canna-koken en je hier dan ook het beste mee kunt beginnen. Vervolgens ben je voorbereid om op ieder moment te gaan koken.
Gedroogde pollen zijn geweldig om mee te koken en kunnen als meel worden afgewogen, waarbij de voordelen van de cannabinoïden rechtstreeks in het voedingsmiddel komen. Behandel pollen net als milde kief, maar wees voorzichtig; het is zo fijn dat een niesbui een wolk van fijnstof verspreidt over je hele keuken. Als je extracten hebt gemaakt om mee te bakken, gebruik dan simpelweg meer pollen olie om de kracht te versterken.
FIJNE VEZELS & BETERE WAARDE
Wanneer cannabis als hennep wordt gekweekt, stelen de mannelijke planten de show. In gemengde gewassen worden de mannelijke planten gebruikt voor dunne stoffen zoals linnen voor bedden, tafelkleden en zakdoeken. De vrouwtjes worden gebruikt voor grovere toepassingen zoals touw en canvas. Mannetjeswerden bewust apart gezet, gekweekt, geoogst en geschild van de vrouwtjes.
Zonder bestuiving, is er sprake van een aanzienlijke vermindering van de commerciële waarde van het gewas, aangezien het merendeel van die waarde afhankelijk is van de zaden. Cannabis zaden kunnen voor veel verschillende dingen worden gebruikt en hebben veel waarde in de industrie en als voeding. 80% van het totale gewicht van een commercieel hennep gewas bestaat uit zaden. Zonder mannetjes zou er geen bestuiving plaatsvinden.
CANNABIS ALS COMBINATIE PLANT
Cannabis heeft als aanvulling op het menselijk lichaam ontelbare voordelen. Vezelrijk, energievol, heilzaam, de lijst is langer dan dit artikel. Rondom het huis gekweekt, biedt cannabis weerstand tegen plagen zoals vliegen en muggen. Zelfs thee gemaakt van de bladeren en toppen is een perfect zoet-ruikend insectenwerend middel. Een papje gemaakt van de bladeren heeft ontstekingsremmende eigenschappen en vermindert aanzienlijk blauwe plekken.
Als aanvulling op andere planten, werd cannabis vaak gekweekt rondom andere gewassen, dankzij haar vermogen om plagen af te stoten. Het werd zelfs ooit onkruid genoemd, omdat het zo overmatig in de buurt van kanalen, sloten en duikers groeide. Aangezien het zo snel groeit, verdrijft cannabis veel ongewenste onkruidsoorten zoals schadelijke hoornbloem en bestrijdt het verschillende soorten dodelijke aaltjes.
Cannabis voorkomt ook dat verschillende lucht en bodemplagen populaire commerciële gewassen aantasten, zoals katoen (katoenwormen), aardappelen (schimmel in de vorm van aardappelziekte, en cystenaaltjes) en kool (koolrupsen). Mannetjes produceren, net als vrouwtjes, een aanzienlijke hoeveelheid terpenen. Vooral limoneen en pineen staan bekend om hun insectenwerende kwaliteiten.
De lange penwortel en brede wortelmat worden geliefd om hun vermogen om voedingsarme aarde te doorbreken en te beluchten. Gebruikt als tussengewas of op braakliggende velden, stimuleert cannabis de brosheid van de bodem en de waterpenetratie, en zorgt de dekking van de bladeren voor een dikke laag vitaminerijke mulch, wanneer de planten ouder worden.
Geschreven door: Zamnesia Zamnesia verbetert continu haar psychedelische producten, assortiment en kennis. Gedreven door de geest van Zammi, streeft Zamnesia ernaar om jou nauwkeurige, feitelijke en informatieve content te bieden.
Welcoming Hypha’s Decentralized Human Organisation
It’s said that the next wave of enlightenment won’t be individuals but a group of people coming together with a deep, committed and purposeful vision.
We’re living through the modern day Renaissance, while simultaneously experiencing peaks of ecological, political, economic and social crises. Future societies will look back and say that the “Dark Ages” hadn’t quite ended yet.
The Dark Ages are almost over.
We’re at the dawn of welcoming in new systems of governance, thought and value distribution. Human awareness and consciousness is shifting from a local awareness to a global awareness.
“We’re not defending nature; we’re nature defending itself.” — Unknown
You are a part of this transition. Your awareness comes with the duty to bring your unique perspectives and gifts to this new paradigm.
It’s important not to have a revolution.
A revolution is merely a shift in power from one group of people to another within the same paradigm.
This isn’t a revolution for some. This is a Renaissance for all of humanity.
We’ll need to navigate this new terrain with impeccable integrity and dedication to this new paradigm.
Otherwise we may revert into old systems of exploitation and domination and merely walk away with a revolution.
The Decentralized Human Organisation (DHO)
The DHO is in many ways similar to a DAO (Decentralized Autonomous Organisation) Except in that it places the humans that comprise it in the center. Opposed to trying to automate humans away, the DHO seeks to automate the majority of tasks to empower humans to more effectively and joyfully collaborate.
The old paradigm told us to show up, punch the ticket, appease the boss and generally do what we’re told.
In the DHO there are no bosses. You are accountable to your role and the other team members. But, most of all, you’re accountable to your purpose, your passion, your personal growth and your gifts.
It’s your responsibility (your ability to respond) to identify your gifts, create a role that best empowers you to share these gifts, then contribute to the creation of a new paradigm.
No one can tell you how to do this, what your gifts are, or how you’d like to receive value for your gifts. This is up to you to decide.
It is up to the other members of the DAO to decide whether or not to receive these gifts. But, it’s not up to them to tell you how to give, how to contribute, or what your purpose is.
This is going to be awkward at first as we learn to take our first steps in this new paradigm of self-empowerment and freedom.
We’ll need to exercise our atrophied communication and relationship skills.
Skills that we had as children when we — without hesitation — spoke truthfully, expressing our thoughts, concerns, opinions and emotions.
This new paradigm will require us to fully show up, wounds and all.
What you make of this structure is up you.
Success here isn’t just making (literally) money. Success is changing money. It’s changing how and what we value as a society.
Sure, there is enormous value to be made and shared. However, true success is a thriving planet, with a purpose driven society where people are deeply and truly nourished. Welcome to the dawn of of these new systems. We’re building them now and Hypha DHO is a live experiment.
The DHO scales using nested (holonic) circles and breaks down decision making and role patterns that emerged from the practices and organisational patterns of Holacracy. We use the term organism because the DHO is a structure that allows human collaboration to behave as the cells of our bodies do. Our bodies have no rigid hierarchy, no top-down control mechanisms but are able to coordinate actives on a massive scale to create an entirely new being — a human. The same is true for the DHO. What this new being looks like us up to us.
Hemp is a distinct variety of the plant species Cannabis sativa L. that grows to a height anywhere from 4-15 ft (1.2-4.5 m) and up to 0.75 in (2 cm) in diameter. The plant consists of an inner layer called the pith surrounded by woody core fiber, which is often referred as hurds. Bast fibers form the outer layer. The primary bast fiber is attached to the core fiber by pectin—a glue-like substance. The primary fibers are used for textiles, cordage, and fine paper products. The wood-like core fiber is used for animal bedding, garden mulch, fuel, and an assortment of building materials.
Due to the similar leaf shape, hemp is frequently confused with marijuana, another cannabis plant. The major difference is their tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content, the ingredient that produces the high when smoked. Marijuana can contain as much as 20% THC, compared to less than 1% for industrial hemp. Despite this difference, some countries are reluctant to legalize growing of hemp (especially the United States), since there is a fear this will make it more difficult to control the use of the drug. Most hemp varieties also have a hollow stalk that have a very high fiber content (35%), in contrast to marijuana varieties that usually have a solid stalk having low fiber content (15%).
Canada is one country that has legalized hemp, though with certain restrictions. The maximum allowable THC concentration is 0.3% and all hemp farmers are required to undergo a criminal-records check, as well as obtain a license from Health Canada. Despite these restrictions, hemp production has increased threefold in just a year, from 6, 175 acres (61.75 hectares) harvested in 1998 to nearly 20,000 acres (200 hectares) in 1999. Over 95% of the acres grown in 1999 in Canada were for hemp grain.
Farmers who grow hemp claim it is a great rotation crop and can be substituted for almost any harvest. It grows without requiring pesticides and is good at aerating the soil. On a per-acre basis, one estimate claims hemp nets farmers more income ($250-$300) than either corn or soybeans ($100-$200). A full crop of hemp only takes 90 days to grow, yielding four times more paper per acre, when compared over a similar 20 year period with redwood trees in the northwest United States. However, there are other varieties of trees that yield two to three times more than hemp.
Advocates of hemp claim that it can be used in 25,000 different products, from clothing to food to toiletries. Until the nineteenth century, hemp was used in 90% of ships’ canvas sails, rigging, and nets (and thus it was a required crop in the American colonies). Today, hemp fiber is being used as a replacement for fiberglass in automotive components and made into cloth for window dressings, shower curtains, and upholstery. China is the world’s largest producer of hemp fabric, whereas India produces the most hemp overall.
Other products made from hemp fiber include: insulation, particleboard, fiberboard, rope, twine, yarn, newsprint, cardboard, paper, horse stable bedding, and compost. Hemp bedding has been found superior to straw and other materials for horse stalls in reducing the smell of ammonia. Hemp seed is used to make methanol and heating oil, salad oil, pharmaceuticals, soaps, paint, and ink.
Currently 32 countries, including Canada, Great Britain, France, and China, allow farmers to grow industrial hemp. The current hemp market for sales and exports in North America is estimated at between $50-$ 100 million per year. Unites States imports of industrial woven fabrics made from hemp totaled $2.9 million in 1997. Import volume jumps to around $40 million when other products—such as paper, shampoo, and oil—are included. Textile uses of hemp represent 5% of hemp products produced in Canada.
Hemp was the first plant to be domestically cultivated around 8000 B.C. in Mesopotamia (present-day Turkey). Hemp was grown for fiber and food. It was recorded as being harvested in central Asia around 6500 B.C. Several centuries later, China started growing hemp as a crop and later used it in medicine. By 2700 B.C. , the Middle East, Africa, and most of Asia used hemp for fabric, rope, medicine, and food. Hemp was introduced to Europe 400 years later. The oldest surviving piece of paper, a 100% Chinese hemp parchment, was dated to A.D. 770.
From 1000 B.C. to the nineteenth century, hemp was the world’s largest agricultural crop, where it was also used for paper and lamp oil. During this period, several well-known books, including the Bible and Alice in Wonderland, were printed on hemp paper, and several famous artists painted on hemp canvas. The first crop in North America was planted by a French botanist in Nova Scotia in 1606. Thomas Jefferson drafted the United States Declaration of Independence on hemp paper and grew hemp him-self. Two centuries later, the United States and Canada put a stop cannabis cultivation in 1937 with the Marijuana Tax Act (this put a one dollar per ounce tax on any hemp manufacturers), which was later lifted during the World War II effort.
Global production of hemp has been declining since the 1960s, from over 300,000 short tons (272,160 t) of hemp fiber and tow in 1961 to 69,000 short tons (62,597t) in 1997. China accounts for 36% of this production and 73% of grain production. This has dropped from 80,000 to 37, 000 short tons (72,576 to 33,566 t) over the same period. Around 1994, there were 23 paper mills using hemp fiber, at an estimated world production of 12,000 short tons (10,886 t) per year. Most of these mills were located in China and India for producing printing and writing paper. Others produced specialty papers, including cigarette paper. The average hemp pulp and paper mill produces around 5,000 short tons (4,536 t) per year, compared to wood pulp mills at 250,000 short tons (226,800t) per year.
However, in the last decade, the number of companies trading in and manufacturing hemp products has increased dramatically. The North America market is still in its infancy since Canada just legalized hemp production and sale in 1998. Hemp cultivation tests in the United States began a year later though it is still illegal to grow it commercially.
Fiber processing uses few chemicals, if any at all. However, the fiber may be blended with other materials, such as synthetic fibers or resins as binders, depending on the final product being made. For paper making, water and chemicals (sodium hydroxide or sulfur compounds) are mixed with the fibers to remove the natural glue components.
The Manufacturing Process
Cultivation and harvesting
Hemp is an annual plant that grows from seed. It grows in a range of soils, but tends to grow best on land that produces high yields of corn. The soil must be well drained, rich in nitrogen, and non-acidic. Hemp prefers a mild climate, humid atmosphere, and a rainfall of at least 25-30 in (64-76 cm) per year. Soil temperatures must reach a minimum of 42-46°F (5.5-7.7°C) before seeds can be planted.
1 The crop is ready for harvesting high quality fiber when the plants begin to shed pollen, in mid-August for North America. Harvesting for seed occurs four to six weeks later. Fiber hemp is normally ready to harvest in 70-90 days after seeding. A special machine with rows of independent teeth and a chopper is used. To harvest hemp for textiles, specialized cutting equipment is required. Combines are used for harvesting An example of hemp and hemp fibers. grain, which are modified to avoid machine parts being tangled up with bast fiber.
2 Once the crop is cut, the stalks are allowed to rett (removal of the pectin [binder] by natural exposure to the environment) in the field for four to six weeks—depending on the weather—to loosen the fibers. While the stalks lay in the field, most of the nutrients extracted by the plant are returned to the soil as the leaves decompose. The stalks are turned several times using a special machine for even retting and then baled with existing hay harvesting equipment. Bales are stored in dry places, including sheds, barns, or other covered storage. The moisture content of hemp stalks should not exceed 15%. When planted for fiber, yields range from 2-6 short tons (1.8-5.4t) of dry stalks per acre, or from 3-5 short tons (2.7-4.5 t) of baled hemp stalks per acre in Canada.
3 Hemp seeds must be properly cleaned and dried before storing. Extraction of oil usually takes place using a mechanical expeller press under a nitrogen atmosphere, otherwise known as mechanical cold pressing. Protection from oxygen, light, and heat is critical for producing a tasty oil with an acceptable shelf-life. Solvent extraction methods are also emerging for removing oil since they achieve higher yields. Such methods use hexan, liquid carbon dioxide, or ethanol as the solvent. Refining and deodorizing steps may be required for cosmetics manufacturers.
4 A dehulling step, which removes the crunchy skin from the seed using a crushing machine, may be required. Modifications to existing equipment may be required to adequately clean the seeds of hull residues.
5 To separate the woody core from the bast fiber, a sequence of rollers (breakers) or a hammermill are used. The bast fiber is then cleaned and carded to the desired core content and fineness, sometimes followed by cutting to size and baling. After cleaning and carding, secondary steps are often required. These include matting for the production of non-woven mats and fleeces, pulping (the breakdown of fiber bundles by chemical and physical methods to produce fibers for paper making), and steam explosion, a chemical removal of the natural binders to produce a weavable fiber. Complete processing lines for fiber hemp have outputs ranging from 2-8 short tons/hour (1.8-7.2 t/hr).
6 The primary fiber is pressed into a highly compressed bale, similar to other fibers like cotton, wool, and polyester. Other products, such as horse bedding, are packaged in a compressed bale.
7 Bast fibers are usually used in paper, which are put into a spherical tank called a digester with water and chemicals. This mixture is heated for up to eight hours at elevated temperature and pressure until all fibers are separated from each other. Washing with excess water removes the chemicals and the extracted binding components (pectin). The clean fibers are then fed into a machine called a Hollander beater, which consists of a large tub equipped with a wheel revolving around a horizontal axis. This beating step, which lasts for up to 12 hours, cuts the fibers to the desired length and produces the required surface roughness for proper bonding. Bleaching chemicals are sometimes added during this step or to separate tanks with the fibers. The bleached pulp is then pumped to the paper machine or pressed to a dryness suitable for transportation to a paper mill at another location.
Hemp fibers are tested for tensile strength, fineness (fiber diameter), and the color is recorded. Moisture content is recorded during every stage of the growing and production process. The THC content of the plant is also contiguously tested to make sure that the level does not exceed the 0.3% mark. Research is still being conducted on the effects that hemp would have on the industry. Set standards are constantly being altered and changed.
The harvested hemp not used is burned. During fiber processing, the core fiber is saved and usually used to make paper, horse bedding, or construction materials. Most hemp producers recycle the core fiber by removing dust, then baling and packaging. The dust can be pressed into pellets used for fuel. The dirt and small chips of core are also used as a high nutrient soil additive.
Where it is legal, the hemp industry has been growing at an annual growth rate of 20%. Other potential uses are being developed. For instance, hemp meal has demonstrated it can be used as a food ingredient for aquiculture farms, specifically freshwater fish and shrimp. Even hemp beer has entered the Canadian market, though it is expected to remain a small part of beer sales. Composite materials for the building industry are also being investigated.
Using hemp as a source of food may become the largest application, since hemp seeds have much nutritional value. The seed contains essential fatty acids, protein, calcium, iron, zinc, and vitamins B, C, and E. Hemp seed can be made into oil or flour and can also be eaten whole, since it tastes similar to pine nuts or sunflower seeds.
The outlook for hemp in the United States is uncertain since it is still illegal to grow it. There are 10 states that passed legislation in 1998 to allow growing hemp for research purposes—Arkansas, California, Hawaii, Illinois, Minnesota, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, and Virginia—and a number of other states are considering it. However, federal law still prohibits growing industrial hemp. The Drug Enforcement Agency will have to change its mind before any market can be developed in the United States. Once that happens, hemp could become a billion dollar crop if there is enough investment and interest, prices are competitive, and high quality products can be made. Processing technology also needs to be upgraded for higher value-added products.
From cultivation to extraction, the hemp industry requires highly specialized technology to flourish.
AMANDA LUKETAAmanda Luketa is a freelance technical writer and former cannabis industry mechanical engineer. She believes strongly in helping others, federal legalization, and the power of curiosity. In her free time, she enjoys rock climbing and yoga.
With the passing of the Farm Bill, the hemp industry has seen a long-awaited boom in production and revenue. There are many uses for hemp, from textiles to products containing only CBD, with some companies even using hemp as a biomass energy source. The equipment for producing hemp products is complex and requires technology from various disciplines. Take a look at some of the specialized processing and farming equipment used within the hemp industry.
HEMP FARMING EQUIPMENT
There are many ways to grow hemp, with some methods being more sophisticated than others. Hemp farming requires substantial agricultural knowledge and research, as the exact equipment used will depend on the precise growing methodology.
Another critical factor in which equipment a farmer chooses is whether or not the hemp will be used for textiles or for CBD oil. If used for textiles, hemp can be planted at a much higher density – up to 400,000 plants per square acres – but if CBD production is the goal, the density drops substantially to a maximum of around 1,600 plants per acre.
This is because textile hemp is grown similarly to wheat, with tall stalks that are then used for industrial applications. CBD hemp, on the other hand, is cultivated to be small and leafy, staying lower to the ground, with the plant’s flowers used for oil production.
Here is some of the equipment involved in the hemp farming process:
A seed drill streamlines the process of sowing hemp seeds and can be used to plant many acres of the crop efficiently.
If not starting from seeds, a transplanter can be used to move a substantial quantity of early hemp plants into the field, placing them with the appropriate spacing and position.
Also used for harvesting wheat, a combine is used to cut and collect the hemp stalks and grain material. This equipment is typically used when harvesting textile-based hemp crops, as it is a rough process that would compromise the structure of the plant when used for CBD production.
CBD Hemp Harvester
Explicitly designed to harvest hemp used for CBD oil production, this harvester works differently than the combine. The CBD hemp harvester carefully cuts each hemp plant and loads it onto a trailer, without damaging the plant’s structure. A typical harvester processes up to 5 acres of CBD hemp per day, and can also be used for cannabis crops.
HEMP PROCESSING EQUIPMENT
The bulk of the processing requirements for hemp consist of decortication. Hemp decortication is the process of separating the hemp fiber from the plant stalk. Hemp is also processed into CBD oil by companies in the hemp extraction space. Take a look at the cutting-edge technology designed for hemp processing:
Continuous Countercurrent Reactor for Decortication
The Continuous Countercurrent Reactor (CCR), developed by PureHemp Technology out of Fort Lupton, CO, is designed to streamline the decortication process. The reactor works by passing hemp stalks through the machine in the opposite direction as a liquid reagent, to efficiently separate the hemp into pulp and sugar co-products.
Developed by CannaSystems, a Canada-based company serving the industrial hemp industry, the R-2 decorticator is designed to be a semi-portable turnkey solution for separating hemp. The unit is a hydraulic, diesel-powered system, and can process up to five tons of hemp per hour.
Applications for these products range from hemp-based kitty litter to hemp skin care products and potting mixes.
Precision KPD Series for Extraction
Designed to operate on an industrial scale, the Precision KPD extraction system can process over 25,000 pounds of hemp per day for manufacture into CBD oil. Features include a continuous feed system and compatibility with ethanol, heptane, or hexane as an extraction solvent.
GROWING HEMP IS A SCIENCE
Those considering entering the exciting space of hemp cultivation and processing must do thorough research before beginning an operation. Hemp is unique in that it draws from both conventional agricultural methods, as well as precise science from the cannabis industry. Growing hemp for CBD oil production may prove more of a challenge than for textiles, though both can provide a rewarding opportunity for the new or experienced farmer.
The basics: Hemp can provide two types of fuel. 1. Hemp biodiesel – made from the oil of the (pressed) hemp seed. 2. Hemp ethanol/methanol – made from the fermented stalk.
To clarify further, ethanol is made from such things as grains, sugars, starches, waste paper and forest products, and methanol is made from woody/pulp matter. Using processes such as gasification, acid hydrolysis and enzymes, hemp can be used to make both ethanol and methanol.
In this day of oil wars, peak oil (and the accompanying soaring prices), climate change and oil spills such as the one in the gulf by BP, it’s more important than ever to promote sustainable alternatives such as hemp ethanol. Hemp turns out to be the most cost-efficient and valuable of all the fuel crops we could grow on a scale that could fuel the world.
And as it turns out, the whole reason for hemp prohibition – and alcohol prohibition – may have been a fuel the realization that OIL production is threatened by any competing fuel source, especially one that requires no modifications to your car!
What is Hemp Biodiesel? Hemp biodiesel is the name for a variety of ester based oxygenated fuels made from hemp oil. The concept of using vegetable oil as an engine fuel dates back to 1895 when Dr. Rudolf Diesel developed the first diesel engine to run on vegetable oil. Diesel demonstrated his engine at the World Exhibition in Paris in 1900 using peanut oil as fuel. Hemp biodiesel come from the pressing of the hemp seeds to extract the oil. Through a process explained here , hemp biodiesel can be made.
Hemp biodiesel can be made from domestically produced, renewable oilseed crops such as hemp. With over 30 million successful U.S. road miles hemp biodiesel could be the answer to our cry for renewable fuel sources. Learning more about renewable fuels does not mean we should not cut back on consumption but does help address the environmental affects of our choices. There is more to hemp as a renewable fuel source than you know
Why Hemp Biodiesel?
Biodiesel is the only alternative fuel that runs in any conventional, unmodified diesel engine.
It can be stored anywhere that petroleum diesel fuel is stored. Biodiesel is safe to handle and transport because it is as biodegradable as sugar, 10 times less toxic than table salt, and has a high flashpoint of about 300 F compared to petroleum diesel fuel, which has a flash point of 125 F.
Biodiesel can be made from domestically produced, renewable oilseed crops such as hemp.
Biodiesel is a proven fuel with over 30 million successful US road miles, and over 20 years of use in Europe.
When burned in a diesel engine, biodiesel replaces the exhaust odor of petroleum diesel with the pleasant smell of hemp, popcorn or french fries.
Biodiesel is the only alternative fuel in the US to complete EPA Tier I Health Effects Testing under section 211(b) of the Clean Air Act, which provide the most thorough inventory of environmental and human health effects attributes that current technology will allow.
Biodiesel is 11% oxygen by weight and contains no sulfur.
The use of biodiesel can extend the life of diesel engines because it is more lubricating than petroleum diesel fuel, while fuel consumption, auto ignition, power output, and engine torque are relatively unaffected by biodiesel.
The Congressional Budget Office, Department of Defense, US Department of Agriculture, and others have determined that biodiesel is the low cost alternative fuel option for fleets to meet requirements of the Energy Policy Act.