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New Wind Generation Technology Produces 6 Times More Energy

A wind power company, SheerWind, from Minnesota USA has announced its new Invelox wind power generation technology. The company says its turbine could generate six times more energy than the amount produced by traditional turbines mounted on towers.via: News Direct

source/image: News Direct

Invelox does not rely on high wind speeds. It captures wind at any speed, even as low as 2 miles per hour.The result is the design is capable of producing 600% more energy due to the low wind speed.

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Down To The Last Stem: Making The Most Of Cannabis Plant Waste

Another successful harvest is complete. Your cannabis flower has been cured and trimmed, and the trim has been made into extract or edible — or better yet, both. There’s just one thing left to do: Clean up the plant mess. You’ve got a load of fan leaves, cannabis stalks, root balls and soil that need to be dealt with. While it’s tempting to simply break them down and throw them into large black garbage bags, you’d rather be more environmentally friendly, right? But how?

Going green is a practice most cannabis growers want to embrace with their gardens. However, despite the eco-friendly nature of the cannabis industry, growers in legal states are struggling to make the most of their cannabis plant waste, with much of it ending up in a landfill.

So, what can cannabis growers do? Obviously, the answer to this question depends on the type of grow they’re operating — small-scale medical grows won’t have the same options as large recreational grows. In either case, cannabis plant waste shouldn’t even be referred to as waste; there’s just so much that can be done with it.

Six Options For Reusing And Recycling Your Plant Waste

1. Compost

There are two options when it comes to composting cannabis plant waste. The first is on-site composting. If your grow is on a large enough property, you can create your own organic fertilizer there, but it will have to be far larger an area than a typical at-home composter in order to accommodate cannabis stalks, root balls and fan leaves. If you’re going to start your own compost, you can’t just throw your cannabis waste in a big pile outside and hope for the best; you’ll need a compost area with good drainage, the ability to completely cover it, proper circulation and diverse contents. In addition to the cannabis plant waste, you’ll need to add things like kitchen scraps for moisture. If your grow operation is located outside, an added bonus to making your own compost is that you can use it on your plants. Save the earth, save a few bucks.

If you can’t start your own compost pile, another option is to use an industrial compost facility. Disposing of your cannabis plant waste via an industrial compost facility is undoubtedly the most convenient option, as most facilities provide the bins for the waste and even pick it up. You can then buy compost from these facilities for a great price. The issue with industrial compost facilities is that many of them receive federal funding and thus have to follow federal regulations, which means they can’t take cannabis waste. Some industrial composting facilities are privately owned, however, and will gladly take your cannabis plant waste. Call around to your local composters to find out whether or not they’ll take your cannabis plant waste.

2. Edibles

Fan leaves and cannabis roots aren’t waste at all. In fact, they have medicinal value and should be used. Fan leaves are well known to be good for making teas and juicing. The fan leaves are good for you and are full of all kinds of nutrients.

Cannabis roots have a long history of medicinal use. According to a study published in Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, the journey of cannabis roots as a medicine began in Ancient Rome when Roman author Pliny the Elder claimed in his encyclopedia Natural Histories that cannabis root could treat stiff joints and a variety of other inflammation-related conditions.

“The current available data on the pharmacology of cannabis root components provide significant support to the historical and ethnobotanical claims of efficacy,” the study concludes.

The study also provides THC content for all parts of the plant. The roots contain no significant THC, the stems and fan leaves tested at less than 1 percent THC, and the flower being tested came in at 15.2 percent. So, while the roots may not contain significant THC, other chemical compounds in the plant matter may provide relief for a variety of inflammation-related ills.

Since fan leaves don’t contain much THC or CBD, they’re most useful for juicing and teas. Roots don’t contain any THC, so their medicinal properties can be accessed by making a simple cannabis root tea. You won’t want to juice cannabis roots, as the flavor and consistency aren’t appealing. If this is the route you choose to take, there’s plenty of info and recipes out there to help you get the most out of these healthful ingredients.

3. Topicals

Cannabis stems and fan leaves contain trace amounts of THC — .3 percent and .8 percent, respectively, according to the aforementioned study. This makes them a viable source for medicinal use in the form of topicals. Since most cannabis growers are left with vast amounts of fan leaves, extracting medicine from them by making an oil is an economic and ecologically friendly method.

Once you’ve made your cannabis oil (stick to coconut or olive oil for topicals; rubbing butter on your skin is problematic), there are many recipes online that use other herbs to complement cannabis, both with their fragrance and medicinal qualities. Herbs such as rosemary, lavender, sage and thyme all offer medicinal and aromatic benefits that will make your topicals extra effective.

4. Mulch

One simple, effective and inexpensive way to repurpose cannabis stalks is to turn them into mulch. Put the cannabis stalks through a wood chipper and you’ll have mulch to put on your garden beds, or wherever else you may need mulch. It provides a great cover for the winter and will eventually break down and benefit the soil.

5. Fiber

Long before cannabis and hemp prohibition were even considered, our forefathers were using hemp stalks to create textiles including ropes, clothing and even sails for their ships. Hemp and marijuana are different plants, but their hardy stalks can be used in many of the same ways, one of which being fiber. Creating rope, in particular, is fairly simple and can be done with rough, inexpensive and easy-to-acquire farm equipment. The wonderful world of YouTube has several videos on how to process hemp stalks on a small scale. Cannabis stalks can be processed in the same way.

Check out the below YouTube clip courtesy of Mainely Acres about processing hemp on a small scale:

If you’re looking to process cannabis stalks on a larger scale, you’ll want to partner with someone capable of processing stalks into a fiber. It may take some digging to find the right partner, but sustainable fiber producers are out there and eager to work with new materials, if regulations allow. If you’re in Colorado, you’re in luck. State laws were just updated to allow, and actually encourage, cannabis growers to turn their plant waste into industrial fibers.

Cannabis Recycling

Hempcrete is made from the center core of the cannabis stalk, also known as the hurds.

6. Hempcrete

An underappreciated way to utilize hemp and cannabis stalks is to turn them into hempcrete. Unlike fiber, which is made from the outer layer of a cannabis stalk, hempcrete is made from the center core of the cannabis stalk, also known as the hurds. To turn those hurds into hempcrete, chop them up and mix them with a lime-based binder and water. A common ratio is:

  • Four parts hurds
  • One part lime binder
  • One part water

Different ratios produce different strengths, depending on the application, so it’s good to play around with ratios until you find the right one for your project. The hempcrete mixture will need to be placed in a metal or wood structural frame to dry. The drying takes at least a month, so it will need to be done during a dry season.

So, before you bag up those remnants of your last grow for the landfill, consider one of these options to help make the most out of your cannabis plant waste. Not only will you possibly be able to profit, but you’ll also be helping to save the planet.

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What do empty cans have in common with vegetables grown in stone wool?

Deborah 'Debbie' Kelly Spillane

Deborah Kelly Spillane13 August 2021

Circularity, webinar, nl

If you’ve ever been to Denmark, you might have been surprised to see people picking up empty bottles and cans instead of putting them in the bin. This is one of the first learnings for newcomers living in Denmark: By returning bottles and cans to the deposit machine in the supermarket, they can be exchanged for cash. This is a classic example of the circular economy – a way to keep materials in use for as long as possible.

As we realise the irreversible damage our “take, make and waste” consumerist society is inflicting on our planet, calls for a stronger circular economy are growing ever louder. And they are being met in new and innovative ways across many different industries – from the way we build to the way we heat our homes in winter.

Before we get into some exciting examples of circular businesses, let’s take a look at exactly what it means and just why it is so important. At the time of writing, the vast majority of the world’s resources, including metals, plastics, wood, concrete, chemicals are used only once before they become waste. Circularity is philosophy that reduces this enormous waste by keeping materials in use for as long as possible to decrease our carbon footprint and the constant exploitation of our natural world. It is based on three principles:

  • Design out waste and pollution
  • Keep products and materials in use
  • Regenerate natural systems

Circle House – circularity in construction

Let’s look at some real life examples of this philosophy put into practice. Close to Aarhus, Denmark, a social housing project has been built to demonstrate circularity in construction. With the construction industry being responsible for one third of all waste created worldwide[1], this move towards circularity is much-needed.

This unique building is the first fully circular building of it’s kind and the construction of this revolutionising building meant brining together many different stakeholders to re-think the construction process and selecting the very best materials. The Circle House project shows that it is possible to overcome the challenges involved and it has started a much-needed discussion around circularity in construction. You can read more about Circle House here:11 August 2021Not just home sweet home but a material bank

From waste to heat

In Denmark today, 64 percent of all Danish households[2] get their heating from district heating. In the small town of Vamdrup, a short drive from Aarhus, you’ll find another example of how local businesses and are working together to re-use waste heat. Here ROCKWOOL’s stone wool factory contributes excess heat from its cooling systems to the local district heating network. This is then used to heat the homes of 1,500 local residents.

By turning what is often seen as a waste product into heat, local homeowners save 10 percent of their heating bills. At the same time, ROCKWOOL reduces the energy needed for cooling. And ultimately by reducing the need to heat and cool, everybody benefits from the reduced CO2 emissions.28 April 2021Top 10 Sustainable case studies

Grown in stone

But circularity is about more than just building and recycling bottles – and it can be found at the cutting-edge of new, innovative methods of growing our food. If you’ve had a fresh salad lately, it might have come from a ‘hydroponic’ farm. You can think of these farms as high-tech green houses, many of which grows produce in highly controlled conditions using no soil. Instead these farms use soil substitutes, such as stone wool. It can be hard to wrap your head around the idea of growing fresh produce in stone  but this material is ideal for achieving more growth with less space and fewer resources.09 May 2018Growing more with less

In Denmark, the  indoor farm Katrine & Alfred grows tomatoes, cucumbers and chilis using Grodan stone wool blocks. The even density of the stone wool creates stable growing conditions and avoids many of the natural deviations that occur in soil. The exact amount of nutrients can be delivered straight to the plant, which results in less environmental impact and a more uniform product.

What’s more, this controlled method of farming lets the company save on fertilisers, and enables them to recycle and reuse water. In fact, growing one kilo of tomatoes in a state-of-the-art greenhouse using hydroponics takes only four liters of water whereas soil-based growing would require 60 litres[3]. That’s something that can only make your salad taste even better!

It’s time for circular thinking

Faced with an ever-shrinking window of time where we can take action to reduce our impact on the planet, redefining growth and industrial practices has become more urgent than ever before. Whether it’s building homes with less environmental impact, reusing waste heat or just recycling our empty bottles, circularity provides ways to rebalance our lifestyles that we need to embrace.

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EPA Awards $100K Grant To Support Production Of Hemp-Based Bricks For Sustainable Construction

on April 9, 2021

ByKyle Jaeger

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced this week that it is awarding a Washington State-based company a $100,000 grant to support the development of sustainable bricks made from industrial hemp.

Earth Merchant was one of 24 grant recipients under EPA’s small business innovation research program. The company’s hemp-based OlogyBricks are seen as a “durable, lightweight, carbon-negative” alternative to traditional construction bricks made of concrete or other materials.

EPA said in a notice that the hempcrete product “will improve energy efficiency and indoor air quality in single family homes and other architectural applications.”

Photo by Brendan Cleak 2017

“Industrial Hemp can be grown without pesticides or chemical fertilizers, requires less water than crops like cotton or corn, and reaches maturity one hundred days from planting,” the federal agency said. “Hemp photosynthesizes carbon dioxide with greater efficiency than trees and can be harvested twice per year, doubling the rate of carbon sequestration.”

Further, the hemp blocks can “improve health outcomes for residents” because they contain components that are “antifungal and antimicrobial, reducing the risks of airborne bacteria while also being vapor permeable.”

OlogyBricks also fully produced in the U.S., “where the industrial hemp supply has blossomed following passage of the 2018 Farm Bill” legalizing the crop, EPA said.

This isn’t the first time the agency has expressed interest in the environmental impact of hemp. In 2019, EPA awarded a roughly $12,000 grant to a student-led research team at the University of California, Riverside, to support a study on the use of hemp as an “industrially relevant renewable fiber for construction.”

Also that year, Rep. Tulsi Gabbard (D-HI) introduced a bill that sought to modernize the hemp industry, develop specific guidelines and encourage federal research into a wide-range of potential applications for the crop, including as a concrete alternative.

On another related note, a coalition of former President Donald Trump’s allies had explored whether they could privately fund a wall along the Mexican border that would be constructed using hemp blocks. Former White House Chief Strategist Steve Bannon said that the group was consulting with a Kansas-based hemp company about the possibility of erecting a hempcrete wall along the southern border.

Connecticut Governor Says Marijuana Legalization Will Be Decided By Voters If Lawmakers Fail To Enact Reform

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Imker bouwt kauwgomtoestel om en verkoopt voedsel voor bijen

Imker bouwt kauwgomtoestel om en verkoopt voedsel voor bijen

Een kauwgomautomaat met voeding voor bijen. Dat bedacht imker Bart Lenaerts uit Wijnegem. Hij plaatste het automaat zaterdagochtend aan zijn woning. Wie er 50 cent in steekt, krijgt een handvol zaadmix.
Wie in zijn tuin graag een plekje wil omtoveren tot een walhalla voor buien, vlinders en hommels kan terecht bij imker Bart Lenaerts in Wijnegem. Veel heb je daar niet voor nodig. 50 cent en een tuintje is al voldoende.

De man kocht een oud kauwgomtoestel en vulde het met allerlei zaadjes. Een draai aan de knop en je krijgt een handvol dat je kan zaaien in je tuin. “Het is een mengsel van zaadjes waar bijen dol op zijn. Boekweit, koriander, goudbloem enzovoort”, vertelt Bart. 

De zaadjes kan je dan zaaien in je tuin en zo extra voedsel creëeren voor de diertjes. 

Je vindt het toestel in de Schoolstraat 117 in Wijnegem. 

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Plukgeluk wil volgend jaar samen met jongeren uit het district Antwerpen leren bomen kweken en planten op een halve hectare te Linkeroever. 5000 stuks en liefst met 500 kinderen. Plukgeluk wil tegelijk kinderen leren wat duurzame voeding is, hoe het voedselbos werkt en ze oefenen in natuurobservatie. Hoe we dat allemaal gaan doen kan je nalezen via deze link en je kan er ook op stemmen als het jou aanstaat. Eeuwige dank!

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The Decentralized Human Organisation (DHO)

The Decentralized Human Organisation (DHO)

Welcoming Hypha’s Decentralized Human Organisation

It’s said that the next wave of enlightenment won’t be individuals but a group of people coming together with a deep, committed and purposeful vision.

We’re living through the modern day Renaissance, while simultaneously experiencing peaks of ecological, political, economic and social crises. Future societies will look back and say that the “Dark Ages” hadn’t quite ended yet.

The Dark Ages are almost over.

We’re at the dawn of welcoming in new systems of governance, thought and value distribution. Human awareness and consciousness is shifting from a local awareness to a global awareness.

“We’re not defending nature; we’re nature defending itself.” — Unknown

You are a part of this transition. Your awareness comes with the duty to bring your unique perspectives and gifts to this new paradigm.

It’s important not to have a revolution.

A revolution is merely a shift in power from one group of people to another within the same paradigm.

This isn’t a revolution for some. This is a Renaissance for all of humanity.

We’ll need to navigate this new terrain with impeccable integrity and dedication to this new paradigm.

Otherwise we may revert into old systems of exploitation and domination and merely walk away with a revolution.

The Decentralized Human Organisation (DHO)

The DHO is in many ways similar to a DAO (Decentralized Autonomous Organisation) Except in that it places the humans that comprise it in the center. Opposed to trying to automate humans away, the DHO seeks to automate the majority of tasks to empower humans to more effectively and joyfully collaborate.

The old paradigm told us to show up, punch the ticket, appease the boss and generally do what we’re told.

In the DHO there are no bosses. You are accountable to your role and the other team members. But, most of all, you’re accountable to your purpose, your passion, your personal growth and your gifts.

It’s your responsibility (your ability to respond) to identify your gifts, create a role that best empowers you to share these gifts, then contribute to the creation of a new paradigm.

No one can tell you how to do this, what your gifts are, or how you’d like to receive value for your gifts. This is up to you to decide.

It is up to the other members of the DAO to decide whether or not to receive these gifts. But, it’s not up to them to tell you how to give, how to contribute, or what your purpose is.

This is going to be awkward at first as we learn to take our first steps in this new paradigm of self-empowerment and freedom.

We’ll need to exercise our atrophied communication and relationship skills.

Skills that we had as children when we — without hesitation — spoke truthfully, expressing our thoughts, concerns, opinions and emotions.

This new paradigm will require us to fully show up, wounds and all.

What you make of this structure is up you.

Success here isn’t just making (literally) money. Success is changing money. It’s changing how and what we value as a society.

Sure, there is enormous value to be made and shared. However, true success is a thriving planet, with a purpose driven society where people are deeply and truly nourished.
Welcome to the dawn of of these new systems. We’re building them now and Hypha DHO is a live experiment.

DHO = Decentralised Human/Holacratic/Holonic Organism/Organization

The DHO scales using nested (holonic) circles and breaks down decision making and role patterns that emerged from the practices and organisational patterns of Holacracy.
We use the term organism because the DHO is a structure that allows human collaboration to behave as the cells of our bodies do. Our bodies have no rigid hierarchy, no top-down control mechanisms but are able to coordinate actives on a massive scale to create an entirely new being — a human. The same is true for the DHO. What this new being looks like us up to us.

Are You Ready?

Overview of the DHO

The DHO: (site)
Rieki Cordon

August 13, 2019

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Ecologische solar boat project in volle vaart.

Ecologische solar boat project in volle vaart.

Vandaag werden we hartelijk ontvangen in de unieke wereld van kapitein Peter Van Elslander op zijn ecologische solarboat.
Een vaarwater van rust en ontspanning.

Voor ondernemer Peter Van Elslander is het duidelijk, zijn ecologische pleziervaarten zijn meer dan een bron van ontspanning., ze zijn vooral in hoge mate een solide en creatief aanbod inzake mobiele verplaatsingen op het water.

Geen enkele storende prikkel bij het varen, de afwezigheid van ronkende motoren, het varen over het water is zonder geluid, de solarboot glijdt stil en trillingsvrij over het wateroppervlak. Tijdens de tocht hebben we ons zalig in de divan genesteld en nuttigen we een heerlijk gekoelde drank, die altijd aan boord aanwezig zijn.

De onthaasting en de natuur vanop het water is een zalige belevenis. Geen mens die tijdens je verblijf beslag op je legt, zuivere ‘Quality time’ waarbij Captain Sunset samen met jou op zoek gaat naar begrippen rust en deze omkadert in zorgvrije momenten.

De afwezigheid van storende prikkels maken dit bijzonder concept tot puur genieten en geeft een mens een nieuwe dimensie.

Peter heeft een warm hart. Hij is begaan met zijn bootreizigers, zijn jarenlange ervaring als ondernemer heeft een echte en hechte know-how en band geschept van ecologische en stijlvolle aard.Een boottocht met de solarboot zal je gemoed en geest verrijken.

Alles verloopt volgens de hygiënische normen inzake de coronamaatregelen.
In augustus kan je nog de ganse maand genieten in de omgeving.
Eerste afvaart is 13:00, laatste afvaart is 17:30.
Reserveren is niet noodzakelijk. Prijs is €5 per persoon.
Het vertrekpunt is in augustus steeds de Plaisancebrug achter de Brusselpoort te Mechelen.

Andere mogelijke formules: Elke dag, van 1 augustus tot en met 31 augustus is het ook mogelijk de boot af te huren met Peter zelf als uw lieve, vriendelijke kapitein.
Dit is vanaf 18:30 mogelijk. Prijzen zijn €200 voor 2 uur varen, €150 voor 1 uur en €100 voor een half uurtje. Indien er onderweg ergens getafeld wordt bedraagt de prijs per ingegaan uur wachttijd €25.

Met veel plezier licht ik u verder in over de vele mogelijkheden hieromtrent om iets op uw maat te maken.

U mag tot en met 12 personen komen zolang deze van dezelfde bubbel zijn natuurlijk.
Vanaf september 2020 kan je ook onthaasten met een staycation.

Privé faciliteiten met vakantiesfeer:Vanaf 1 september is het ook mogelijk de boot te huren, de tarieven hiervoor heeft Peter nog niet beslist, maar er zijn ook meerdaagse tochten mogelijk met overnachting vanaf dan. Best is hiervoor telefonisch contact op te nemen om samen te overleggen en de mogelijke formules onderling te bespreken, gaande van inspirerende tot beloftevolle arrangementen voor privépersonen en beperkte zakenrelaties.Van samen genieten, het delen van eenzelfde ervaring heeft Captain Sunset met de solarboot zijn handelsmerk gemaakt en hiermee in Mechelen zowat uitgegroeid is tot een uniek concept.

Info : Peter Van Elslander- Captain Sunset – Solar Boat Trips Mechelen
GSM en Whatsapp: +32 476 37.57.51

Reportage & Foto’s : Eric Creve, Inge Sève.
BBONM 20.08.2020

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Processing and Farming Equipment in the Hemp Industry

From cultivation to extraction, the hemp industry requires highly specialized technology to flourish.

AMANDA LUKETAAmanda Luketa is a freelance technical writer and former cannabis industry mechanical engineer. She believes strongly in helping others, federal legalization, and the power of curiosity. In her free time, she enjoys rock climbing and yoga.

With the passing of the Farm Bill, the hemp industry has seen a long-awaited boom in production and revenue. There are many uses for hemp, from textiles to products containing only CBD, with some companies even using hemp as a biomass energy source. The equipment for producing hemp products is complex and requires technology from various disciplines. Take a look at some of the specialized processing and farming equipment used within the hemp industry.


There are many ways to grow hemp, with some methods being more sophisticated than others. Hemp farming requires substantial agricultural knowledge and research, as the exact equipment used will depend on the precise growing methodology.  

Another critical factor in which equipment a farmer chooses is whether or not the hemp will be used for textiles or for CBD oil. If used for textiles, hemp can be planted at a much higher density – up to 400,000 plants per square acres – but if CBD production is the goal, the density drops substantially to a maximum of around 1,600 plants per acre.

This is because textile hemp is grown similarly to wheat, with tall stalks that are then used for industrial applications. CBD hemp, on the other hand, is cultivated to be small and leafy, staying lower to the ground, with the plant’s flowers used for oil production.  

Here is some of the equipment involved in the hemp farming process:

Seed Drill

A seed drill streamlines the process of sowing hemp seeds and can be used to plant many acres of the crop efficiently.


If not starting from seeds, a transplanter can be used to move a substantial quantity of early hemp plants into the field, placing them with the appropriate spacing and position.


Also used for harvesting wheat, a combine is used to cut and collect the hemp stalks and grain material. This equipment is typically used when harvesting textile-based hemp crops, as it is a rough process that would compromise the structure of the plant when used for CBD production.

CBD Hemp Harvester

Explicitly designed to harvest hemp used for CBD oil production, this harvester works differently than the combine. The CBD hemp harvester carefully cuts each hemp plant and loads it onto a trailer, without damaging the plant’s structure. A typical harvester processes up to 5 acres of CBD hemp per day, and can also be used for cannabis crops.


The bulk of the processing requirements for hemp consist of decortication. Hemp decortication is the process of separating the hemp fiber from the plant stalk. Hemp is also processed into CBD oil by companies in the hemp extraction space. Take a look at the cutting-edge technology designed for hemp processing:

Continuous Countercurrent Reactor for Decortication

The Continuous Countercurrent Reactor (CCR), developed by PureHemp Technology out of Fort Lupton, CO, is designed to streamline the decortication process. The reactor works by passing hemp stalks through the machine in the opposite direction as a liquid reagent, to efficiently separate the hemp into pulp and sugar co-products.

The CCR can be used for efficient biomass production, as part of the effort to reduce the planet’s dependency on fossil fuels.

R-2 Decorticator System

Developed by CannaSystems, a Canada-based company serving the industrial hemp industry, the R-2 decorticator is designed to be a semi-portable turnkey solution for separating hemp. The unit is a hydraulic, diesel-powered system, and can process up to five tons of hemp per hour.  

HempTrain for Consumer Products

This industrial powerhouse, developed by Canadian Greenfield, is designed to process and decorticate hemp into up to nine different products.

Applications for these products range from hemp-based kitty litter to hemp skin care products and potting mixes.

Precision KPD Series for Extraction

Designed to operate on an industrial scale, the Precision KPD extraction system can process over 25,000 pounds of hemp per day for manufacture into CBD oil. Features include a continuous feed system and compatibility with ethanol, heptane, or hexane as an extraction solvent.


Those considering entering the exciting space of hemp cultivation and processing must do thorough research before beginning an operation. Hemp is unique in that it draws from both conventional agricultural methods, as well as precise science from the cannabis industry. Growing hemp for CBD oil production may prove more of a challenge than for textiles, though both can provide a rewarding opportunity for the new or experienced farmer.